AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter One: Preliminaries

Preface

Since David Kilgour and David Matas wrote Bloody Harvest and Ethan Gutmann wrote The Slaughter, we three have remained active in writing, researching, investigating and speaking on organ transplant abuse in China. We have a joint website – www.endorganpillaging.org – which posts our work as we do it. David Kilgour also has a website – www.david‑kilgour.com – which keeps up to date on this issue, also posting the work of all three of us.

We encourage readers, before they start this work, to read our previous works on transplant abuse in China. It is difficult, if not impossible, to appreciate an update without awareness of what is being updated. The information we have provided previously is not repeated here. Nonetheless, to make this text user-friendly we provide a brief recapitulation of our previous work here.

Recapitulation

Bloody Harvest came out in three versions, first in July 2006, second in January 2007 and third, in book form, in August 2009. The first report was prompted by a request David Kilgour and David Matas received from an NGO to investigate a statement that a woman (given the pseudonym “Annie”) had made. Annie told the newspaper the Epoch Times in a story published in its March 17, 2006 issue: “One of my family members was involved in the operation to harvest Falun Gong practitioners’ organs.” The requesting NGO was the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong. (This NGO is similar in name to the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, but is a different organization.)

Falun Gong, also known as Falun Dafa, began in May 1992 with the teachings of Li Hongzhi. The two Davids have described Falun Gong as a set of exercises with a spiritual and ethical foundation. Ethan Gutmann in The Slaughter states: “Falun Gong, simply put, is a Buddhist revival movement.”

In 1999 the Communist Party of China decided to repress the spiritual practice and its practitioners. Those who did the exercises after the repression campaign was launched were arrested and asked to denounce the practice. Those who did so were released. Those who did not were tortured. Those who still refused to recant after torture disappeared into the Chinese gulag – China’s network of labour camps, detention centres, psychiatric hospitals, prisons, and black jails, sometimes referred to as the “Laogai System.”

Chapter one of the book Bloody Harvest set out the methods David Kilgour and David Matas used to do their research. Amongst the methodological principles used were an insistence on looking at all evidence and a refusal to jump to conclusions based on only some of the evidence; a refusal to rely on hearsay or rumour or third party evidence; and an insistence that any evidence which the two Davids saw independent researchers could see on their own to form their own conclusions.

Chapter two set out contextual information, the general repression of Falun Gong. Whatever one concludes about the killing of Falun Gong for their organs, the vilification and brutalization of practitioners of Falun Gong in China is incontestable.

Chapters three and four provided some Falun Gong witness/victim statements. These statements showed, in chapter three, that many detained Falun Gong practitioners refused to identify themselves to the authorities. The non‑self‑identified were more numerous than the self‑identified and with rare exceptions, were never released.

These statements also showed, in chapter four, that Falun Gong practitioners in detention were systematically blood tested and organ examined. Non‑Falun Gong detainees did not experience similar tests and examinations.

Chapter five set out statements of patients who went to China for transplants. These statements showed that organs were available on short notice, in secrecy, with a heavy involvement of military personnel and institutions.

Chapter six looked at Chinese transplant hospitals. Many of these hospitals on their websites actively promoted transplant tourism, advertising easy, quick availability of organs, at high prices.

Chapter seven detailed calls investigators made to hospitals. The callers pretended to be relatives of patients who needed transplants and asked for organs of practitioners of Falun Gong. The reason for the requests was that the exercises of practitioners meant the organs would be healthy. Hospitals throughout China told the callers, in calls which were taped, transcribed and translated, that they had organs of Falun Gong practitioners for sale.

Chapter eight attempted to estimate the sourcing of organs based on Chinese government statements of transplant volumes. The estimate was that, from 2000 to 2005, at a transplant volume of the official figure of ten thousand a year, approximately 41,500 organs during those six years came from practitioners of Falun Gong.

Chapter nine looked at Sujiatun hospital, where Annie’s husband worked. Some investigators went to the hospital several weeks after Annie’s statement and found nothing. The chapter pointed out that this sort of investigation had little probative value.

Chapter ten set out work from other researchers on the subject. All the researchers corroborated the results of the two Davids.

Chapter eleven provided the responses of the Government of China to the evidence of the killing of practitioners of Falun Gong for their organs. The responses have been harassment, bullying, spying, disinformation, and anti‑Falun Gong propaganda.

Chapter twelve went through foreign laws on transplant tourism and Chinese laws on transplant abuse. The conclusion was that the laws which should have been in place to prevent the killing of Falun Gong for their organs and selling the organs to transplant tourists were not in place.

Chapter thirteen examined ethical codes of conduct of transplant professionals on transplant tourism and relationships with Chinese transplant professionals. The chapter noted that there had been substantial development in these codes since the first report of the two Davids, but that there was still much to do.

Chapter fourteen asked the question “How does one best combat human rights violations in China?” The answer given was to go after the worst violations first ‑ in this instance, the killing of Falun Gong practitioners for their organs.

Chapter fifteen addressed the Chinese Communist Party claim that human rights values are Western. The argument of the chapter is that human rights values are universal.

Chapter sixteen addresses the question “How do we end organ transplant abuse in China?” The chapter made a number of recommendations, one of which is the need for an institutionally‑based independent investigation into organ transplant abuse in China.

 

* * *

 

Ethan Gutmann devised a test to either confirm or reject the basic conclusions of Bloody Harvest: instead of relying on Chinese official transplant numbers, investigative phone calls, and other evidence that had previously come to light, the investigation would start with a blank page and attempt to fill the space with field research and witnesses who had never been spoken to. This created an environment where the goals of the investigation could be hidden from the subjects as well. Gutmann and his researchers Leeshai Lemish and Jaya Gibson ended up travelling across four continents, interviewing well over one hundred individuals over a six‑year period.

After his first ten interviews with Falun Gong refugees, Gutmann began to suspect that the conclusions of Bloody Harvest were true, and possibly even understated. However, Gutmann also wondered if evidence that only focused on the central question – “Are the allegations true?” – would fully persuade critical readers in the West. For example, it is simple common sense that murder requires a motive. Yet China is a complex culture; establishing a motive cannot always be reduced to a soundbite. Instead, Gutmann decided that, given a comprehensive history of the conflict between the Chinese Communist Party and Falun Gong, the readers themselves would be capable of answering certain basic questions: “Why did the Party attack Falun Gong? How did a relatively routine Party crackdown degenerate into mass murder?”

Critical readers might also want to understand how forced organ harvesting of prisoners of conscience began. So a new line of investigation was created focusing on the following questions: “Was Falun Gong the first victim group to be harvested? If not, how did the organ harvesting of prisoners of conscience begin? Was organ harvesting created as a “final solution” for Falun Gong or was it an improvised solution?

In August 2014, Prometheus Books published The Slaughter: Mass Killings Organ Harvesting, and China’s Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem. Chapter one established that the first known cases of live organ harvesting – in essence, a surgeon extracting the organs from a living human being so that the surgeon becomes the executioner ‑ were performed in 1995 on the execution grounds of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in Northwest China. For example, a Uyghur surgeon, Enver Tohti, recounted extracting the kidneys and a liver from a prisoner who had been shot in the chest with the objective not to kill the prisoner but to send the prisoner’s body into shock (and this update confirms that live organ harvesting using medical methods would actually become a routine procedure a few years later). The chapter also established that the first forced organ harvesting of prisoners of conscience – in this case, Uyghur Muslim activists – were administered in Urumqi, the capital of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, in 1997. Another medical witness described being forced to administer blood tests of Uyghur political prisoners on behalf of a handful of aging, high‑ranking, Chinese Communist Party officials who needed tissue‑matched organs. Because the officials had travelled to Urumqi specifically for the operations, this can be seen as one of the first cases of “organ tourism,” albeit within China’s borders, while also underscoring that the Party was explicitly involved in the forced organ harvesting of political and religious prisoners from the very beginning.

It was during this period that the Chinese Communist Party began construction of the world’s largest labour camp in the Tarim Desert, where approximately 50,000 Uyghurs and hardened criminals (and ultimately Falun Gong) would be detained. Yet there was no guarantee in 1997 that organ harvesting would become the Party’s preferred method of eliminating prisoners of conscience, so the research question then turns from the “how?” to the “why?”

Chapter two is the first of six chapters that examines how the conflict between the Chinese State and Falun Gong evolved over time. Beginning in 1992, the chapter tracks various Falun Gong practitioners – a university student, a professor, a small business owner, and a female pensioner – to illustrate how the practice could spread so quickly throughout Chinese society and even into the upper echelons of the Chinese Communist Party. The chapter also reveals the testimony of a finance minister who is told to cooperate in the secret surveillance and repression of Falun Gong in 1996, demonstrating that the Party had already decided to eliminate Falun Gong and any remaining debate was largely over tactics. The author identifies three main factors in the Party’s decision to eliminate Falun Gong: its size (at least 70 million, and therefore slightly larger than the membership of the Party), its cross‑appeal (particularly in the upper echelons of the Party), and its values of truth, compassion, and forbearance (the nationalist wing of the Party believed these values harkened back to a period of Chinese weakness and thus were in conflict with China becoming globally dominant). The chapter ends in early 1999, shortly before the repression of Falun Gong became officially stated policy.

Chapter three traces the history of the Falun Gong crackdown from the spring of 1999 to the end of the year, when the repression was fully operational. The key points are that Falun Gong walked into several carefully laid‑out traps as the Chinese Communist Party prepared a massive public crackdown. The author also makes the controversial case that the crackdown was not the work of one man, President Jiang Zemin, but a systematic campaign with the tacit support of the majority within the politburo. It is germane to the development of forced organ harvesting in China that both the Falun Gong resistance and the lethal use of torture by state authorities had taken shape before the end of December 1999.

Chapters four, five, six, and seven follow individuals on opposite sides of the fence: an officer of the secret police, a prison camp director, and a series of Falun Gong practitioners demonstrating, printing leaflets, and hijacking television signals. The narrative of pursuit, arrest, torture, and, in several cases, execution, illustrates that Falun Gong was putting up an increasingly effective resistance ‑ even as the state’s structure of persecution was spinning out of control, and shedding any remaining inhibitions surrounding the mass exploitation of Falun Gong for their organs. The “self‑immolation” of Falun Gong practitioners on Tiananmen Square is also examined in detail, with the conclusion that it was not only a set‑up but a masterstroke of state propaganda.

Chapter eight takes a ground‑up approach to forced organ harvesting, focusing on Falun Gong practitioners who were given suspicious “retail organs only” physical examinations while they were in the Laogai System. What emerges is a picture of an organ harvesting regime that began giving discreet physical examinations of select Falun Gong practitioners in late 2000/early 2001, expanding into mass examinations (including Tibetan prisoners of conscience and the House Christian group “Eastern Lightning”) by 2003, and an organ harvesting regime wasn’t even being kept fully secret within the Laogai System by 2005. These findings are amplified by an extensive interview with an investigator (given the pseudonym “Crystal”) from the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, and an extended comparison with the findings of Bloody Harvest.

Chapter nine employs a top‑down approach to the evidence of forced organ harvesting beginning with the testimony of Dr. Ko Wen‑je, a Taiwanese surgeon who was offered Falun Gong organs from a Mainland hospital in 2005. (Dr. Ko subsequently ran for mayor of Taipei and during a heated campaign attempted to distance himself from his interview; the actual email correspondence between the author and Dr. Ko confirming his testimony is available for download at ethan‑gutmann.com). The evolution of Falun Gong harvesting after the Beijing Olympics is briefly explored, and there is also a detailed discussion of how organ harvesting played into the Chinese leadership crisis of 2102, specifically the revelation of how Wang Lijun (the right hand man to Communist Party leader Bo Xilai) experimented with mass organ harvesting in Liaoning Province.

Chapter ten explores the relationship between the growth of the plastination industry concordant with the acceleration of forced organ harvesting of prisoners of conscience in Liaoning province. Some of the evidence from that chapter will be referenced in this report.

Finally, an appendix estimates the number of Falun Gong killed for their organs between 2000 to 2008, based on in‑depth interviews of a sample of approximately fifty refugees from the Laogai System. Because the intention was to fill in the full history of the Falun Gong persecution, the author was not actively seeking out Falun Gong practitioners who had experienced an unusual physical examination in detention. The author also rejected accounts of “retail physical examinations” if the subject gave too little detail, had been on hunger strike at the time, was clearly influenced by talking points, or had experienced too much trauma.

So the author’s confidence was high that he had a genuinely conservative sample. However, the author’s confidence in his final estimate: a range of 9000 to 120,000 Falun Gong were killed for their organs from 2000 to 2008 was not as high, as the size of the range implicitly acknowledges. Nonetheless, the mid‑range number that Gutmann chose as his best guess ‑ 65,000 Falun Gong killed for their organs ‑ has been widely accepted in the press. The reason for this has less to do with the author touting the accuracy of the figure, and more to do with a deep human need to contextualize tragedy with a specific number or benchmark.

The need for an update

We felt the need to produce an update to what we have done, for several reasons, seven in all. One is the need to make our own assessment of transplant volumes.

In looking at the sources for organ transplants in China, we have, in the past, taken Chinese government official statements of overall transplant volumes at face value and focused on attempting to identify the sources for those asserted volumes. However, Chinese government statistics for transplant volumes are not necessarily reliable. One effort which needed to be made and which we finally have made is to determine on our own what Chinese transplant volumes are..

We did that by looking at and accumulating the data from the individual hospitals where transplants occur. Some hospitals state their transplant volumes. For those who do not, we can, from their bed counts, personnel strength, potential patient groups, rate of growth, technological development, academic publications, and media reports, come to a conclusion on their transplant volumes.

A second task, flowing from the first, was the need to address cover-up. Cover-up is a standard reaction to wrongdoing. Chinese Communist Party coverup is not a new story. But, because we are dealing new data, we consequently have to address cover up anew, attempts to hide individual hospital transplant figures.

Deception in the data limits the yield of research from that data. Because of the Chinese corruption of the data with which we are working, we cannot make specific numerical conclusions with complete certainty. Accordingly, our estimates of Chinese transplant volumes are not expressed in single integers but in a numerical range.

Despite the cover up and corruption of data, despite our inability to produce an exact figure, we are convinced that transplant volume is substantially higher than the official figure. The high volume led us into a third component of this update, to explore the driving factors behind these volumes.

Once we started looking at what is generating the volume, we had to look at the extent to which the Chinese Communist Party is in the driver’s seat, the structure the regime has built around organ harvesting, and the culpability of some individual Party members. The update accordingly addresses that topic as well.

Fifth, we analyze the Party’s claims of recent transplant reform. The Chinese regime announces changes regularly on organ transplant sourcing, some of which are real, while some are not. Because the Party has moved since our last published works, we too have to move, to assess their claims of change and attempt to determine how real those claims are.

A sixth new feature of this work is incorporation of whistleblower evidence. In the past, we have tended to avoid reproducing that evidence, even though we had it. We have to protect the identities of whistleblowers. That protection, while understandable, means that an independent researcher cannot identify and question the whistleblowers him or herself. Whistleblower evidence nonetheless deserves to be presented publicly, albeit with the identities of the whistleblowers disguised, if for no other reason than to encourage other whistleblowers to come forward. So it is presented here.

Finally, this update addresses plastination, in addition to organ sourcing, a subject we have mostly not addressed before. In the past, we have shied away from addressing plastination, because plastination is different from our focus, organ transplantation. Nonetheless, there is compelling evidence that practitioners of Falun Gong are killed for both plastination and organ sourcing. The evidence supporting each abuse is also evidence in support of the other abuse.

No one in the West has witnessed organ transplant abuse in China; yet a large number have seen plastinated bodies from China on display. Furthermore, plastinated body parts from China have been sold to medical schools and universities throughout the Western world. Plastination gives an immediate, widespread, publicly visible reality to the abuse that the killing of innocents for their organs cannot.

 

A Note on Methods Used

We have had the benefit of work by a group of Chinese‑language researchers to whom we express our profound appreciation. The researchers:

  • reviewed data from telephone surveys, hospital websites, and medical journals for the 865 hospitals in China which perform organ transplants (about 13% of all hospitals);
  • tracked 712 liver and kidney transplant centres and collected and analyzed information about them from media reports, public and government websites, current and archived hospital websites, and medical journals;
  • examined individually 165 hospitals approved by the Government of China to conduct transplantation and set down their features, qualifications, revenue, potential patient groups, bed counts, personnel, transplant capacity and volume, research projects, relationships with other hospitals and parties, funding, patents, and awards;
  • made phone calls to a number of the hospitals to verify their current organ transplant status and to cross check information about the hospitals the searchers had previously obtained; and
  • summarized the policies and regulations of the Government on organ transplants, reviewed the history of the industry in China, and provided information on the state military and civilian institutions which enable the industrialization.

Introduction

This update has to be read forward but understood backwards. The ultimate conclusion is that the Chinese Communist Party has engaged the State in the mass killings of innocents, primarily practitioners of the spiritually‑based set of exercises, Falun Gong, but also Uyghurs, Tibetans, and select House Christians, in order to obtain organs for transplants.

Even with the volumes of transplants the Chinese government has asserted in the past, there is a substantial discrepancy between the number of transplants and the number of sources which the Government of China has identified – prisoners sentenced to death and voluntary donors. This discrepancy is one reason, among several, that had led us in the past to the conclusion that the above groups have been the source of many, and indeed most, organs for transplants.

The fact that the evidence we have now examined shows much larger volumes of transplants than the Government of China has asserted points to a larger discrepancy between transplant volumes and Government of China‑identified sources than we had previously thought existed. That increased discrepancy leads us to conclude that there has been a far larger slaughter of practitioners of Falun Gong for their organs than we had originally estimated.

The update begins, in chapter two, by introducing the examination of individual hospitals. It addresses the volume of evidence, the feature of the evidence and the numbers and classifications of transplant centres.

Chapter three focuses on national approved military transplant centres. Chapter four considers national approved civilian transplant centres. In chapter five, we turn our attention to regional approved transplant centres. Chapter six concludes this examination of individual hospitals by looking at non-approved transplant hospitals and cornea transplant centres.

Chapter seven looks at indicators of total volumes of transplants in China besides the figures which come from looking at particular hospitals. These other indicators and the examination of individual hospitals tell us that the total volume of transplants in China is a substantial multiple of the official figures.

Chapter eight canvasses the various forms that cover up of transplant data takes and considers how that impacts on our own analysis. We address deletion of data, falsification of figures, underreporting and restriction of access to data as well as various pretenses used.

Chapter nine then looks at what is generating this volume. In this chapter, we address the Communist Party and the Government as volume drivers, but not the criminality of the Party /State.

Chapter ten calculate a range of possibilities for the total number of transplants performed in China since 2000. This chapter approaches the range calculation from a variety of directions in order to cross check the totals reached.

Chapter eleven sets out evidence that organ sourcing in China is criminal, that innocents are being killed for their organs. In this chapter, we focus on the evidence of the fact of a crime, without attribution to a particular set of criminals.

In chapter twelve, we address finally who is committing this crime -the Chinese Communist Party – and why. This chapter, in effect, explains all that has been presented before. We have tried to avoid acronyms and technical terminology. Nonetheless, when dealing with a specialized medical field, such as organ transplantation, it is impossible to avoid all technical terms. We have, accordingly, provided a glossary.

We acknowledge that to begin the substance of a report with an accumulation of information drawn from the websites of particular hospitals and the biographies of particular doctors may not be gripping reading. Many of the phrases are translated directly from Chinese reports and websites; the language, however leaden, is preserved for accuracy.

Decontextualized, the presentation of this information may be mystifying. We ask the reader to keep in mind our purpose in presenting this material: to explore the scale and velocity of state‑sanctioned mass murder.

 

* * *

 

We understand the desire for a precise number ‑ particularly among the journalism community ‑ but we have collectively decided not to make such an estimate in this update; there are too many variables to make any new estimates other than annual volume of transplants and even that is expressed in a range. We are not in a position to come up with a specific figure of prisoners of conscience who have been murdered through organ harvesting.

Nor can we determine how many organs are extracted, on average, from each transplant source, although the evidence suggests that we are dealing with only one organ extracted from each donor source in many cases. China did not have any form of national organ distribution until 2013. The organ distribution system in place since 2013 is, according to Chinese officials, limited to organs donated voluntarily.

What we can say is that the evidence in this update suggests that our original estimates were far too low. And we can say that the end of this crime against humanity is not yet in sight.

AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter Two: Individual Hospitals and Doctors

i. Volume of Evidence

The primary focus of this update is transplant volumes. Before getting into that, we need to address the volume of evidence about the killing of prisoners of conscience, primarily Falun Gong, for their organs.

Many claims of human rights abuses suffer from having too little evidence. With this claim of transplant abuse in China, the volume problem is the opposite – too much evidence.

There are now three books on the issue, our two and State Organs, a collection of essays which David Matas edited with Torsten Trey, published in 2012. There is an NGO dedicated to combating the abuse – Doctors Against Forced Organ Harvesting (DAFOH). There is a website focused on the issue alone – endorganpillaging.org. There have been five documentaries produced on the violation – Transmission 6‑10, Free China, Red Reign, Human Harvest, and Hard to Believe. About the killing of Falun Gong for their organs, there is more than just a collection of evidence; there is a field of knowledge.

In a world of thirty‑second soundbites and 140‑character messages, the volume of evidence is a problem. The gravity of the abuse would be a lot easier to communicate if less information were needed to show that it is happening. The number of people who have the patience to wade through all the information available on the killing of Falun Gong for their organs to come to their own conclusion is, unfortunately, comparatively small.

One reason that the abuse has not received the global attention it deserves is the sheer volume of evidence that needs to be marshalled to show that the abuse exists. If we had one smoking gun or, as David Kilgour has put it, one smoking scalpel, which we could brandish to show that the abuse exists, our efforts to combat the abuse would be comparatively easy. When we have volumes of evidence that have to be considered as a whole to conclude that the abuse exists, then our audience for the abuse is regrettably but also necessarily diminished.

It may seem counterintuitive in this context to add to this problem by presenting for consideration yet more evidence. What this update addresses is not more of the same – more data in fields already explored. Rather, it explores a whole new data field – the data from individual hospitals. We had in the past looked at particular hospitals to point out that their websites were promoting transplant tourism. Here, we look to them for transplant volumes.

Reliable transplant volume aggregates in China do not exist. The Chinese health system runs four transplant registries, one each for liver, kidney, heart and lung. Public access to the aggregate data for these four registries, which does not now exist, would be useful, if for no other reason than to cross check the proliferation of contradictory statements Chinese officials make about transplant volumes. Yet, any registry is only as reliable as the reports it receives. These registries accumulate their data from reporting hospitals. We cannot assume that every hospital reports all of its transplants to these four registries.

Considering transplant volumes, hospital by hospital, doctor by doctor is, in China, a mammoth task. There are almost nine hundred hospitals and between nine and ten thousand medical personnel engaged in transplants. Moreover, cover up is not just in China an aggregate, national phenomenon. It exists as well at the doctor and hospital level. Nonetheless, to get a grip on transplant volume figures, it is a task which must be undertaken and we do so in this update.

We do this not just to attempt to make more convincing the point we have made before. If you have gone through everything we have written up to now and are not already convinced that innocents in China are being killed for their organs, more data will not convince you. We make the additional effort to make an additional point – that the number of innocents killed for their organs in China is far larger than we had contemplated. The numbers stagger the imagination.

ii. Features

When we look at hospitals and doctors one by one, a number of features jump out. One is the sheer volume of transplants.

The total number of transplants which officials ascribe to the country as a whole, ten thousand a year, is easily surpassed by just a few hospitals. Whatever the total number is, it must be substantially more, by a multiple, than the official figure.

Second, many of the hospitals are relatively new or have new transplant wings or beds. This development would not have occurred without confidence in a continuing supply of organs for transplants. The transplant business in China has developed with not only an abundance of available organs from 2001 on, but also with a confidence that this abundance would continue into the indefinite future.

Third, concomitant with the large number of transplants, there is a large number of qualified staff. The transplant industry in China employs a lot of people. The investment in people as well as buildings is another testimonial to the ready availability of high volumes of organs available for transplants, not only in the immediate past and present, but also, in the view of those who have committed their careers and the careers of others to this profession, into the indefinite future.

Fourth, the transplant professionals in China are engaged in substantial training and research. Research and training in transplants cannot be done without transplants. The high volume of research bespeaks itself a high volume of transplants and a ready availability of organs for transplants.

Fifth, the combination of a large professional corps, a substantial building stock and significant research speaks money. Transplantation in China means money, lots of it.

iii. Numbers & Classifications of Organ Transplant Centers

According to statistics from the Administration of Hospitals under the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) in July 2015,1 there were 20,918 hospitals in mainland China. 2 Among them were 1,151 Class 3 hospitals and 4,321 Class 2 hospitals. 3

Class 3 hospitals are normally located in major cities. They are typically large-scale general or specialized hospitals with over 500 beds. Among them, 705 are Class 3 Grade A (“3A”) hospitals. 4

Huang Jiefu, former Deputy Minister of Health, said in March 2006, “For a hospital to pass the evaluation to become a class 3A hospital, it must have completed a fixed target of more than five organ transplants. Organ transplantation has become a resource for competition among hospitals to reach the standard and for their branding,” “At present, the country has too many, not too few, hospitals carrying out kidney, liver, heart, and other types of transplants.”5

In April 2015, Professor Ye Qifa from Central Medical University, Executive Chairman of the China Organ Transplant Alliance, who specializes in major organ transplantation, stated to a People’s Daily Online correspondent that, before the introduction of the “Human Organ Transplant Ordinance” in 2007, there were over 1,000 medical institutions in China performing organ transplants.6

The World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong completed a comprehensive investigation of both organ transplant hospitals and doctors and determined that 865 hospitals are involved in organ transplantation. The hospitals are to be found in 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four centrally-administered municipalities, and 217 prefecture-level cities. 7

Diagram 2.1 Geographic distribution of the 865 medical institutions involved in organ transplantation

 

We have verified and confirmed 712 hospitals which carry out liver and kidney transplants. The qualifications and composition of the 712 liver and kidney transplant hospitals are:

Table 2.2 Distribution of 712 liver and kidney transplant hospitals:
(A)(A) / Total (712)(B)(A)/(B)
Hospital ClassificationNumber of Hospitals InvestigatedPercentage of 712 Hospitals Conduct Liver and Kidney Transplants InvestigatedTotal Hospitals In ClassificationPercentage of Total Hospitals In Classification
Class 3 Grade A55177.4%70578.2%
Class 3 Grade B547.6%19827.3%
Class 3 Grade C10.1%1860.5%
Class 3 Other620.0%
Class 3 Total60685.1%1,15152.6%
Class 2 Grade A9613.5%2,0734.6%
Class 2 Grade B40.6%7540.5%
Class 2 Grade C490.0%
Class 2 Other1,4450.0%
Class 2 Total10014.0%4,3212.3%
Class 1 Grade A20.3%
Class 1 Other40.6%
Total712100.0%547213.0%

 

In fact more than 1,000 hospitals in China applied for permits from the Ministry of Health in 2007 to conduct transplants, implying that they had met the Ministry’s minimum transplant bed count requirements.8 In April 2015, Professor Ye Qifa from Central Medical University, Executive Chairman of the China Organ Transplant Alliance, who specializes in major organ transplantation, stated to a People’s Daily Online correspondent that, before the introduction of the “Human Organ Transplant Ordinance” in 2007, there were over 1,000 medical institutions in China performing organ transplants.9

The Ministry of Health on May 23, 2007 announced a list of 87 transplant hospitals10 approved by the Review Expert Team of the Human Organ Transplantation Skills Clinical Application Committee, authorized by the Ministry of Health, to which we refer as “national level” hospitals. Essentially, these were the most qualified and capable national-level organ transplant centres at the time. At the same time, it announced a second list of hospitals designated to perform organ transplants, issuing 18-month temporary permits to 77 transplant centres with weaker qualifications, to which we refer as “regional level” hospitals. In total, 164 hospitals were given permits to conduct organ transplants.11

On August 8, 2013, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (successor to the Ministry of Health) published a list of 165 hospitals approved to conduct organ transplants,12 including Wuhan University Zhongnan Hospital Human Organ Transplant Centre, which performs transplants from bodies with no cardiac activity. Four more hospitals were added to the list by the beginning of 2014, bringing the number of qualified hospitals to 169.13

This report focuses on the 164 hospitals which received approval from the Ministry of Health in 2007, so that we can categorize their qualifications as either national or regional level. If we exclude the 18 heart and lung transplant centres, 146 transplant centres remain. These include 23 national-level military and armed police hospitals that were among the first batch approved in 2007, 58 national-level civilian hospitals, and 65 designated hospitals.

Among the 566 transplant centres which did not receive approval from the Ministry of Health, 405 were based in large-scale 3A hospitals. These included 56 military and armed police organ transplant centres, 349 mostly-3A civilian hospitals, and 161 medium-sized hospitals (including 55 Class 3 Grade C hospitals and 106 mostly-Class 2 hospitals).

Table 2.3 Classification of 712 hospitals conducting liver/ kidney transplants:
Type of Transplant CentreCount
National-level military and civilian liver and kidney transplant centres approved by the Ministry of Health in 200778
Liver and kidney transplant centres designated by the Ministry of Health in 200768
Subtotal146
Unapproved large-scale (mainly 3A) transplant centres405
Unapproved medium-size (mainly Class 3C and Class 2) transplant centres161
Subtotal566
Total liver and kidney transplant centres investigated712

 

In the next section, we set out examples of different types of transplant centres, showing their qualifications, characteristics, transplant volume and capacity, and rates of growth. These examples give us an indication of overall transplant volume.

References

1 Home Page of Chinese Hospitals Directory
http://www.a-hospital.com/w/%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2%E7%AD%89%E7%BA%A7
https://archive.is/xxu5x
医院名录查询网》首页

2 There are 20918 hospitals in China in 2010 Xinhua net 2011-08-17
http://news.xinhuanet.com/society/2011-08/17/c_121874179.htm
http://archive.is/PJoU4
2010年全国共有各级各类医院20918家 2011年08月17日 来源: 新华网

3 Chinese Hospital Class Inquiry System
https://www.hqms.org.cn/usp/roster/index.jsp
http://web.archive.org/web/20150526223125/https://hqms.org.cn/usp/roster/index.jsp
中国医院等级查询系统

4 Chinese Hospital Class Inquiry System
https://www.hqms.org.cn/usp/roster/index.jsp
http://web.archive.org/web/20150526223125/https://hqms.org.cn/usp/roster/index.jsp
中国医院等级查询系统

5 The Difficulty of Legislation in Organ Transplantation
Source: Life Week , 2006 Issue 13 / April 17, 2006; Author: Guo Na
http://www.lifeweek.com.cn/2006/0417/14976.shtml
https://archive.is/AXFtm
《三联生活周刊》器官移植立法之难 2006-04-17 作者:郭娜 2006年第13期

6 Wuhan University Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Race against Time
www.people.com.cn – Hubei Channel May 21, 2015 Zhang Pei
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2015-05/7432.htm
https://archive.is/SzewF
武大肝胆疾病研究院:器官移植与时间赛跑 [日期:2015-05-21] 来源:人民网-湖北频道 作者:张沛

7 WOIPFG Releases List of 7371 Medical Personnel from 765 Non-Military Medical Institutions Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45858
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/351
WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Libertion Armyand Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45100
《追查国际发布中共765家非军队系统医疗机构涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的7371名医务人员的追查名单》
《追查国际发布中共军队和武警系统100家医院涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的2098名医务人员的追查名单》

8 Climbing the peak of transplantation, continue the wonderfulness of life
http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html
https://archive.is/DATK4
攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩

9 Wuhan University Research Institute of Hepatobiliary Diseases: A Race against Time
www.people.com.cn – Hubei Channel May 21, 2015 Zhang Pei
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2015-05/7432.htm
https://archive.is/SzewF
武大肝胆疾病研究院:器官移植与时间赛跑 [日期:2015-05-21] 来源:人民网-湖北频道 作者:张沛

10 Notice from Office of the Ministry of Health on Registration of Medical Departments for Human Organ Transplantation
National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China NHFPC Publication [2007] No. 87
http://www.moh.gov.cn/mohbgt/pw10708/200804/18974.shtml
https://archive.is/6n8iU
《卫生部办公厅关于做好人体器官移植诊疗科目登记工作的通知》

11 164 hospitals in China passed examination and approval by the Ministry of Health to carry out organ transplants
Source: China News Net August 18, 2007
http://health.chinanews.cn/jk/hyxw/news/2007/08-18/1005195.shtml
Original link no longer accessible. Refer to archived link:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070917151717/http://health.chinanews.cn/jk/hyxw/news/2007/08-18/1005195.shtml
中国164家医院经卫生部审定批准开展器官移植

12 List of Hospitals Approved to Carry Out Human Organ Transplantation National Health and Family Planning
Commission of the People’s Republic of China
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneizhizi/2013-08/6714.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20130827115623/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneizhizi/2013-08/6714.htm
已批准开展人体器官移植项目的医院名单 , 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会, 2013-08

13 List of Hospitals Approved to Carry Out Human Organ Transplantation
National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China
http://web.archive.org/web/20140107075300/http://www.moh.gov.cn/zhuzhan/sjcx/201308/1ef2115e6ce84414b28bcc4b608d0910.shtml
《已批准开展人体器官移植项目的医院名单》, 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会, 2014-01-07

AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter Three: Approved National Military Transplant Centres

National level transplant centres encompasses highly qualified and capable organ transplant centres selected from over 1,000 candidates and approved by the Ministry of Health in 2007. Among them are 23 military and armed police transplant centres and 68 civilian transplant centres.

Examples

The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is one of the few militaries in the world that belong to a political party rather than the state. It is a tool used to sustain the Communist Party’s control over China.

After 2000, a large number of People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Centres were named and supported by the Central Military Commission and regional military commands. In December 2008, Zhang Yanling, director of the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department Health Division, told Xinhua News Agency, “In 1978, there were only three hospitals in the entire People’s Liberation Army capable of performing kidney transplants. Now, there are forty hospitals capable of liver, kidney, heart, lung and multi-organ transplants.”14

According to an investigation by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, the military and armed police have developed over 100 transplant institutions. 15

The 23 top-level military transplant centres among the first batch approved by the Ministry of Health in 2007 were the core units that the evidence shows were carrying out live organ transplants.

People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital (People’s Liberatino Army General Hospital)

Photo: People’s Liberation Army General Hospital (No. 301 Hospital) Outpatient Department16

"The hospital is an important health and wellness base for the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee and provides treatment for the Central Military Committee, People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department, and various regional military commands and military personnel…"

— People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital’s Website

The People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital is the People’s Liberation Army’s largest comprehensive military hospital, incorporating medical treatment, health care, education, and scientific research. The hospital is in responsible for the health care of the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, Central Military Committee, and high-ranking generals. 17It claims to have been leading the country in kidney transplantation technologies. 18

The People’s Liberation Army General Hospital International Medical Centre opened up the exclusive South Building previously reserved for the above category of patients. In December 2009, the Centre began serving provincial and ministerial-level leaders, international VIPs, elites in various industries, celebrities, and other high-end clients.19 Its chief surgeon Huang Zhiqiang was a well-known hepatobiliary surgeon in China and a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

The hospital retains six members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, more than 100 third-class experts (equivalent in rank to generals in non-combat positions), and more than 1,000 senior professional staff members. Its staff includes 184 doctoral advisors, 293 master’s advisors, and more than 180 who serve as directors or deputy directors of various medical committees at national and militarywide levels. This hospital is also called the Medical School of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, the only military education facility founded by a military hospital. Over the years, it has trained more than 4,000 clinical medical professionals with doctoral or master’s degrees, more than 10,000 clinical trainees from many military and local hospitals, and tens of thousands of students under its education programs.

The hospital has carried out more than 800 research projects under the National 973 Program and the 863 Program. It has won more than 1,300 science and technology awards at national, provincial, and ministerial levels, including 7 national first-class and 20 national second-class scientific improvement awards. It publishes 23 national core scientific and technological journals, one of which is listed by Science Citation Index. The hospital has led the country for four years in a row in the total number of papers published domestically and internationally. It has established partnerships with over 100 leading institutions in the field, both in China and abroad, and employs more than 200 experts as guest professors.

Photo: The central health care base in Sanya, Hainan
Photo: International Medical Centre at The People's Liberation Army General Hospital

Rendering: Birds-eye view of the central health care base at the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Sanya, Hainan

 

Li Wenhua, a political commissar with the Beijing Garrison Area Army, received a liver transplant at No. 301 Hospital on July 27, 2007. Li was a division commander with the No. 27 Army who led troops to fire on students during the 1989 Tiananmen Massacre. He was later promoted to political commissar. According to Li’s relatives, Li was diagnosed with a liver disease in early 2007, which worsened despite treatment. The Central Military Committee ordered staff to treat his condition by whatever means necessary. Within eight days, doctors found a liver source (reportedly from a 32-year-old death row prisoner) and transported the organ to No. 301 Hospital on a 40-minute helicopter flight.20

According to medical personnel who work in operating rooms at No. 301 Hospital, organ transplants are among the most frequent, common surgeries, and that transplants are performed there almost every day.21

The hospital’s former president and well-known medical expert Li Qihua was a Falun Gong practitioner. In the initial stages of the persecution, his high profile led to his being directly targeted by Jiang Zemin. Under daily visits from officials and constant duress, Li was forced to give up Falun Gong.22

A surgeon at this hospital told an investigator in April 2006 that she did liver transplants herself. The surgeon added that the source of the organs was a “state secret” and that anyone revealing the source “could be disqualified from doing such operations.”23

The number of transplants performed at this hospital is also a military secret. However, we can gain some insight from financial information of one of its clinical divisions, the No. 309 Hospital. The archived web page of the Organ Transplantation Centre at No. 309 Clinical Division of People’s Liberation Army General Hospital states, “Our Organ Transplant Centre is our main department for making money. Its gross income in 2003 was 16,070,000 RMB. From January to June of 2004 income was 13,570,000 RMB. This year [2004] there is a chance to break through 30,000,000 RMB.” Furthermore, its gross revenue rose from 30 million RMB in 2006 to 230 million RMB in 2010, an increase of nearly 8-fold in 4 years.24 We should note that such figures are commonly face data underreported (for more details, see the “Cover-Up” section in Chapter Three).

According to a Xinhua report titled “People’s Liberation Army General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department’s Glorious History” on July 4, 2007:

“On the foundation of first-class technologies and strict organization operational program, [the hospital] advances liver transplant surgeries, perioperative management, and a series of management models for long-term postoperative follow-ups. Its one-year survival rate for liver transplants reached 91.4%, three-year survival rate was 80.2%, and five-year survival rate was 71.3%. Liver transplants have become our department’s routine surgery…Under the leadership of Professor Dong Jiahong, director of the hepatobiliary surgery department and currently one of our country’s military leaders in liver transplantation, the hepatobiliary surgery department has completed more than 500 liver transplant surgeries.” 25

The department’s five-year survival data implies that it has performed liver transplants regularly since 2002 at the latest. It is also worth noting that Dong Jiahong was not transferred to this hospital until 2006,26 so this report implies that the department performed more than 500 liver transplants that year; this is only the public figure.

No. 301 Hospital has not only conducted a large number of organ transplants by itself, but also has played a role in resolving core technical issues in organ transplantation and supporting civilian hospitals with organ sources and technical consultants.

The Kidney Transplant Centre at Yiyang Central Hospital collaborates with the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital and the kidney transplant centre affiliated with the First Military Medical University. The centre’s mandate states, “We select the best kidneys. We perform overall examinations of the donor kidneys to ensure that the best-quality matching kidneys are chosen. Patient treatment costs charged are lower than the standard of other hospitals within and outside of the province.”27

Photo: Members of the international transplantation community met in August, 2007 in China for a forum on the new Human Organ Transplantation Act.

This photo was taken in 2007, when Francis L. Delmonico, former director of medical affairs for The Transplantation Society (TTS) and an advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO), visited China. In addition, Chen Zhu and Huang Jiefu, Chinese Minister and Vice Minister of health, two military representatives were from No. 301 People’s Liberation Army General Hospital.28 This shows the important role which this hospital played in China’s organ transplant field.

The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department is a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Center and Liver Transplant Center. 29 It claims to be the largest in northern China30 and it is authorized to award Medical Doctor degrees. It also serves as a post-doctoral station, the People’s Liberation Army’s Hepatobiliary Surgical Research Institute (a national prioritized development subject), and one of the People’s Liberation Army’s major laboratories.

According to a report titled “The Hepatobiliary Department’s Battle Team” posted on July 10, 2007 on Xinhua Net, its Liver Transplant Center engages in academic exchanges from time to time with the University of Paris-Sud Hepatobiliary Center in France, the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute in the United States, the University of Melbourne National Liver Transplant Center in Australia, and the Hong Kong University Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery department, and other well-known international institutions. 31

In 2007 the Center had 7 chief surgeons and professors, as well as 11 associate chief surgeons and associate professors. The vast majority of its medical and research personnel hold PhD or postgraduate degrees and can independently complete various hepatobiliary surgeries. The Xinhua.net Report states:

“The People’s Liberation Army General Hospital Liver Transplant Center is a strong, multidisciplinary cooperative team. It includes the hepatobiliary surgery department, operating rooms, anesthesiology department, ICU ward, imaging center, blood transfusion department, pathology department, examination center, and others. Each liver transplant case must go through a careful discussion by the entire team to develop a detailed surgical and postoperative treatment plan. The hepatobiliary surgery department performs no fewer than 5 to 8 surgeries a day. In view of a shortage of beds, it is difficult to better arrange for more complicated patients to be hospitalized and given operations. Our hospital is now speeding up the construction of the new ward building, and estimates that the hepatobiliary department can be expanded to 200 beds by the end of the year.”

According to its official website, the hospital has 172 beds and conducted 3,260 surgeries in 2013.

The department’s former academic leader, Academician Huang Zhiqiang, was one of the founders of biliary surgery in China. Dong Jiahong, the department’s director from 2006 to 2013, used to be the president of the People’s Liberation Army’s Southwestern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital. His portfolio includes Vice President of International Hepatopancreatobiliary Association China Branch, a member of the Ministry of the Health Human Organ Transplant Expert Committee, a standing committee member of the China Organ Transplant Society, and a doctoral advisor at several universities, including the Third Military Medical University. His research has accumulated up to 40 million RMB of funding from the National 863 Plan—National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China; Ministry of Health industry fund, and National Natural Sciences Foundation funding for key subjects.32

Lu Shichun, the current director of the hepatobiliary surgery department and an advisor for doctoral students and post-doctorates, received his PhD in abdominal surgery and organ transplantation from the University of Freiburg in Germany. He formerly served as the director of the hepatobiliary surgery department and liver transplant centre at Beijing You’an Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University. He was also the director of the Sino-US Liver Transplant Liaison Centre. In this position, he led over 700 liver transplants. He now sits on the Chinese Medical Association (CMA)’s Organ Transplant Division Liver Transplant Group, the CMA’s Surgery Division Liver Transplant Group, and the standing committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association’s Organ Transplant Group.

The Urology Department started allogeneic kidney transplants in 1977 and claims to have been leading the country in kidney transplants, with a high reputation in the field. This department has 140 beds and 63 medical personnel, including 14 with senior professional titles and 5 doctoral and master’s advisors.33

Photo: The People’s Liberation Army General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Centre

The web page of this department shows that it performed its first autologous kidney transplant in 1974 and has carried out over 2,000 allogeneic renal transplants since 1977. However, per an article entitled “Progress of China’s clinical kidney allograft” by Director Yu Lixin of Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital Organ Transplant Centre, as early as 2000, the number of kidney transplants completed at this hospital had already reached 1,180.34 It is unlikely that this huge hospital that “has always been leading the country on liver and kidney transplantation technologies” performs only 50 kidney transplants each year.

People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital (People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department General Hospital)

Photo: The People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Centre 35

 

The People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital and the No. 304 Hospital were clinical divisions of the aforementioned No. 301 General Hospital (PLA General Hospital) between May 2004 and August 2009.36

The People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital, which established its organ transplant centre in 2002, is a leader in kidney transplants. It has hosted the data centre for the Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation (CSRKT) Management Committee since 2009. 37 It conducted its first kidney transplant in 1988. The number of kidney transplants performed here ranked No.1 in the country for three consecutive years, from 2007 to 2009. 38

Shi Bingyi, director of the National Kidney Transplantation Study Group, is credited with solving a number of technical issues in kidney transplantation. The centre under his direction has led 20 major research projects, some of which have been part of national-level Five Year Plans, received over 30 million yuan in funding, hosted national-scale organ transplant conferences, lodged national and international transplant-related patents, and received a number of awards. Shi is also chief editor of nine organ transplant books, and set key industry standards. He has trained 51 doctoral and master’s students, while the centre has trained at least 120 who went on to play key roles in other transplant facilities. 39 40

Shi Bingyi’s team did much work on immune response and combating rejection—research that requires many clinical trials of actual transplants.41

 

Organ Transplantation Team

The centre has 231 medical and research personnel, including 53 with doctoral and master’s degrees, 31 senior professionals, 17 PhD and master’s advisors, and 28 post-doctoral fellows, doctoral and Master’s students. 42The team at the centre once completed 12 kidney transplants overnight. 43 In February 2012, a Xinhua Net report revealed that the team had recently performed 13 transplants in one night. 44

Photo: Part of the staff members of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Research Institute 45

 

According to statistics from the Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation, Shi Bingyi had completed at least 2,130 kidney transplants,46 380 liver transplants, and many heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and multi-organ transplants by 2011, making the centre one of the institutions in China that offers the greatest variety of transplants.

Director Qian Yeyong of the transplant surgery department had also completed over 2,000 kidney transplants and many multi-organ transplants by 2013.47 Cai Ming completed about 1,000 kidney transplants, 100 liver transplants, and several hundred organ procurement surgeries.48

Annual Transplant Capacity

In 2010, the People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital’s transplant centre had 316 beds and claimed to lead in annual capacity and bed utilization rate among similar departments in the military.49 In 2012, this organ transplant centre had its own building and expanded to 393 beds. 50 However, its current website shows only 330 beds with the same number of medical and research personnel. It is unlikely for the centre to reduce its bed count, since Shi Bingyi indicated in September 2013 that his institute had five to six thousand patients waiting for transplants each year. 51

A kidney transplant normally requires fewer than three weeks of hospitalization; they usually require one or two weeks in China (refer to Chapter 3 for details). For example, West China Hospital of Sichuan University requires about 20 days of hospitalization.52 Based on 316 beds, 20 days of hospitalization time and 100% utilization rate, the number of transplants in this centre per year would be 5,767. If we count 393 beds, 20 days of hospitalization time and 100% utilization rate, the number of transplants per year would reach 7,172. On Nov.17, 2010, the Centre’s website showed that its transplant volume “ranked first in the country for the last three years,”53 in which case the centre would have performed no fewer than 5,000 transplants annually.

Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command

Photo: Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command & its Surgery Building

 

Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, (also known as Jinling Hospital of the Medical School of Nanjing University54) had the earliest Military Nephrology Research Institute (the “Mayo Clinic of China”) and the first transplant center in China.55 56 It was the first institution in the national health care system that was approved to set up a postdoctoral research station in 2000.57 Its People’s Liberation Army Kidney Diseases Research Centre was designated as “the priority among priorities” in 2000 by the Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission.58

Photo: Team members of People’s Liberation Army Kidney Diseases Research Centre

 

It assembled leading kidney specialists, including Li Leishi, the pioneer of kidney medicine in China and the first kidney specialist to be appointed to the Chinese Academy of Engineering.59 The team had two Academy members and currently has seven professors, eight associate professors, five doctoral advisors, and fourteen master’s advisers. It has graduated more than 150 post-doctoral, doctoral, and master’s students since 1980s. It has established sister relationships with the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Brown University in the U.S.

A Model for Organ Transplantation for the People’s Liberation Army

Li Leishi was the founder of this kidney research centre, the leader of its field in the People’s Liberation Army.60 In 2007, the Chinese Communist Party issued a “decision to learn from Li Leishi.”61 The document stated that he combined Chinese and Western medicine, enabled China’s diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease to quickly reach international standards, and trained numerous top students. Li was named a “Master of Medicine.”62

In 1993, this research centre established China’s first organ transplant centre. Li Leishi was trained in internal medicine, but he sent students to kidney transplant hospitals overseas and went on to direct China’s first kidney transplant surgeries.

Initially performing dozens of transplants per year in the early 1990s, the centre grew into one of the largest kidney transplant centres in China,63 claiming that it had conducted over 1,000 kidney transplants by 2004.64 The Communist Party made Li Leishi a “model” for others to emulate. The first and second editions of The Chinese Renal Transplant Manual by Li Leishi have become the working guide for the kidney transplant industry in mainland China.65 66

Liu Zhihong Carries On Li Leishi’s Legacy

Liu Zhihong is the hospital’s current vice president, director of its Military Nephrology Research Institute, and president of the Medical School of Nanjing University.67 68 As Li Leishi’s protégé, she published more than 50 papers with him, 69 70many of them on kidney transplantation. Liu has held various leadership positions at this hospital over the years. After Li’s death, she became director of its People’s Liberation Army Institute of Nephrology. 71

According to a publication co-authored in 2008 by Liu Zhihong, “From January 1995 to December 2004, 1,000 patients had undergone cadaveric renal transplants” at this hospital. 72 Interestingly, the warm and cold ischemia times were limited to 10 minutes and 24 hours, respectively. All transplants were ABO blood-type-compatible, and donor age ranged between 18 and 50 years old. 73 Among these 1,000 transplants, 653 were performed between April 1997 and August 2003. 74

In 2011, Liu Zhihong co-authored a paper in the Open Journal of Organ Transplant Surgery reporting a study with 93 renal transplant recipients prospectively enrolled at her hospital from June 2002 to December 2005 who had received conversion-to-SRL-based immunosuppressive therapy. 75 The paper claims explicitly, “no prisoners or organs from prisoners were used in the collection of data for this study.” In these years, nearly no voluntary organ donations of deceased or living donors existed; even a pilot project for voluntary organ donation in Jiangsu Province that was started in 2010 attained only 11 voluntary donations in its first two years.76 Therefore, this claim is likely deceptive.

Liu Zhihong is a Councilor of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN), a board member of KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes), Adjunct Professor of Medicine at Brown University, associate chief editor of AJKD, and international Advisory Board Member of Nature Review Nephrology, and possibly other international bodies. 77

During the term of the most recent Five-Year Plan (2011 to 2015), this institute has presided over and completed a number of major initiatives under the National “863 Program,” National Natural Science Foundation projects, and designated military medical study and research projects. It has published more than 1,000 medical works and study papers, including 180 in Science Citation Index. Two volumes of China Nephrology, with a total of 3.7 million words, are specified in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) as national key books. This institute has won over 70 national, provincial, and military awards. 78

The archived website of this research centre boasts: Led by fundamental studies and research, clinical technologies at this institute have made great progress. Kidney transplantation has come to epitomize an institute where kidney disease expertise, blood purification, transplant, and fundamental research are organically integrated into one. The institute’s clinical treatment centre has 210 beds; the average length of stay is 9 days; there are over 8,000 admissions each year, and the institute provides outpatient kidney transplant clinic aftercare service 7,216 times per year. 79

Volume at a Research Institute

Li Leishi once said, “Because we are a research institute, we don’t do too many surgeries.”80 This statement appears to be accurate, at least in comparison to the other 40+ military transplant centres that concentrate more on operations. Yet, during an “Interview with Academician Li Leishi” on “China Military Online,” 81 Li told the story of disciplining three doctors after a medical accident in 2001. One of them was a chief surgeon, and they had been performing “hundreds of kidney transplants a year.” In 2008, when Li was 82 years old, he said “In the past, I myself used to do 120 kidney transplants per year. Now I only do 70 cases.”82

The institution had close to 30 experts before 2001, amongst whom eleven chief surgeons and six associate chief surgeons carried out kidney transplants.83 If the three doctors Li mentioned carried out hundreds of kidney transplants a year, the other fourteen surgeons each year would have conducted well over a thousand collectively.

Fuzhou General Hospital also belongs to the Nanjing Military Command. It expanded upon its transplantation of major organs (kidney, liver, and pancreas) to eleven types of transplants, including stem cells, corneas, and multi-organ transplants. Its cumulative number of kidney transplants ranks first in the country, and its annual transplant volume ranked among the top three for six consecutive years.84

Photos: Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command and its stem cell laboratory

 

On February 27, 2011, its urology surgery department’s website showed that it had seven chief and associate chief surgeons, one post-doctorate, and two Master’s students.85 The department director Tan Jianming was previously also part-time director of the Urology and Transplantation Department at Shanghai Jiaotong University’s First People’s Hospital and its Shanghai Organ Transplant Centre. He had personally performed over 4,200 kidney transplants by 2014.86

Liver transplant surgery became a routine procedure. On February 18, 2014, sixteen doctors of the Hepatology Centre at Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command simultaneously carried out five liver transplants within seventeen hours.87 This centre claimed that it had performed “the first, most, and best liver transplants in Fujian Province.”

Rendering: the layout of the new ward complex of Fuzhou General Hospital

 

Construction began on the new ward complex in 2011, which is scheduled to be put into use at the end of 2016. With a total area of 154,900 square meters and 1,680 beds, the ward complex is the largest in Fujian Province.

Not-So-Rare Achievement

Nanjing General Hospital’s claim of 1,000 kidney transplants in 2004 was not, in the Chinese transplant landscape, an unusual achievement. Many hospitals had already performed over 1,000 kidney transplants long before that year. If the Hospital really was one of the largest transplant centres in China as it claimed, its numbers must have been far greater than 1,000.

Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, recorded on page 157 of its qualification document, “History of Renal Diseases Research Centre, Department of Urology in Xinqiao Hospital,” that it had “conducted 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002 … The Centre once carried out 24 kidney transplants in one day.88

Rendering: Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University

 

Southwest Hospital, its sister hospital, claims to be one of the largest Hepatobiliary Surgery departments both domestically and overseas. Beginning with its first liver transplant in 1999, it was designated as a key experiment of the Centre of People’s Liberation Army Liver Transplantation by 2001. 89 In 2004, the newly-formed Southwest Hospital of Hepatobiliary Surgery established the International Cooperative Liver Transplant Centre with the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute.

Rendering: An architectural rendering of Southwest Hospital

 

In 2004, the Centre’s director Dong Jiahong claimed that the facility could conduct six liver transplants simultaneously.90 By the end of 2004, the facility had expanded to 168 beds. 91 It accommodated 3,000 hepatopancreatobiliary patients from home and abroad, and conducted 2,400 liver and gallbladder transplants annually. 92 By 2011, it had increased to 200 beds.93 Its kidney department possessed the leading technology in kidney transplants in southwestern China. In 2010, it had 64 standard beds and 22 dialysis beds.94 In 2001, the department of ophthalmology at this hospital established the first People’s Liberation Army eye bank which met national standards and began carrying out corneal transplants.95

In addition, according to a report in the Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces in June 2004, 96as early as the year 2000, Beijing Friendship Hospital and Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital had already conducted more than 2,000 kidney transplants. The First Clinical Hospital of Sun Yat-sen, the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, the Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, and others all had carried out more than 1,000 kidney transplants each.

Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical University

Rendering: Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital (Anting New Campus)97

 

The Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, affiliated with the Second Military Medical University, is a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Centre and Research Institute and considered a top priority in this field of development. According to its website, in 2015, it had 742 beds before it moved to the Pudong New District.98 Most of its surgical departments can perform liver transplants, including the liver transplant department itself 99, two special treatment departments (designed for foreign patients) 100, and at least half of its six liver surgery departments. 101 Over the past 20 years, it has administered more than 6 million liver disease treatments and conducted more than 300,000 surgeries.102

Since 1978, it has trained 22 post-doctorates, 112 doctoral graduates, and 223 graduate students with master’s degrees. It also trains international, undergraduate, professional, and vocational students. Over the years, it has trained more than 1,000 visiting scholars from various regions.103 It has won more than 100 awards at national, provincial and ministerial levels, such as the National High Scientific Achievement Award, the National Science and Technology Conference Award, the National Scientific Improvement Award, and the National Natural Science Foundation Award. 104 It is currently conducting research in 150 projects, with total funding of 130 million RMB. 105

Wu Mengchao, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and China’s “Father of Hepatobiliary Surgery,” served as the chief consultant of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Committee. In 2005, Wu won the nation’s highest science and technology award for his solution for major technical issues associated with liver transplant rejection. Former Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin met with Wu five times and personally proclaimed Wu an Exemplary Medical Expert. As of 2010, Wu had presided over 14,000 liver surgeries, including 9,300 hepatectomies.106 The remaining 4,000+ surgeries remain unidentified and are likely to be liver transplants.

Rendering: Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital Anting Campus107
(completed in Oct. 2015 containing 1,500 beds) 108

 

In 2009, the Shanghai municipal government cooperated with the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department to develop the Second Military Medical University. Its development strategy was to move its affiliated Changzheng Hospital eastward to the Pudong District, and to move its affiliated Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital westward to Jiading. On October 18, 2015, the Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, located in Anting in Jiading District, Shanghai, started operations.109

This new 3A comprehensive hospital emphasizes hepatobiliary surgical treatments. The hospital covers a construction area of 200,000 square meters and contains 1,500 beds. It is one of the largest hospitals constructed in one phase. The hospital is currently a national top-priority field of development, a national-level continuing education base, a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Centre, a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Research Institute, a top-priority People’s Liberation Army development project, a major research subject in Shanghai’s medical industry, and a top-priority clinical medical centre for the city of Shanghai.110

Rendering and photos: Inpatient building, ICU units, and regular wards

 

Headed by Academician Wu Mengchao, the hospital’s staff includes 95 personnel with senior professional titles, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 26 doctoral advisors, 51 master’s advisors, and 30 leading figures in various fields from Changhai Hospital and Changzheng Hospital. The department has 30 operating rooms with air purification, including 6 hundred-level laminar flow operating rooms and a digitally integrated operating room.

The National Liver Cancer Science Centre located next to the hospital is a national-level research centre for liver cancer, which was founded under the leadership of Academicians Wu Mengchao and Wang Hongyang, a leading figure in China’s precision medical treatment.

Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical University

Changzheng Hospital’s organ transplantation centre was approved to establish the People’s Liberation Army’s first organ transplant research institute in December 2003. It has since developed into the PLA’s highest-ranking institution for organ transplantation that combines medical treatment, education, and research. The research institute officially opened on May 16, 2004 and started conducting kidney, liver, heart, combined liver-kidney, combined pancreas-kidney, and other types of transplants. It claims to lead the country in the total number of transplants performed.111

In 1978, the hospital became one of the first in China to start conducting kidney transplants. It is also among hospitals that have performed the most kidney transplants, yet it claims to have performed only 4,500 to date.112 This figured is exceeded by just two of its doctors. Zhu Youhua, who is considered a leader in the People’s Liberation Army on kidney transplantation, had successfully completed 3,680 kidney transplants as of 2010.113 Li Shenqin has also conducted more than 1,000 transplants.

Zhu Youhua’s team was the first in China to develop a preservation solution for kidney and other organs, and this has now been applied clinically for two decades. This research put China among the world’s pioneering countries in this field.114 The organ preservation solution is being used in 98% of Chinese hospitals.115

The hospital started conducting liver transplants in 1996. According to academic papers published by doctors at this hospital, within the three years leading up to April 2006, “our department treated 120 patients with serious hepatitis using emergency liver transplants.” The shortest wait time was 4 hours between hospitalization and surgery.116 Between April 22 and April 30, 2005, the hospital conducted 16 liver transplants and 15 kidney transplants.117

Since 1991, when the Eighth Five-Year Plan started, the hospital has undertaken 349 scientific research projects at the national, military, and provincial levels, including many projects under the National 973 Program and the National 863 Program. Its research funding totals 110 million RMB. Over the years, it has made 279 research achievements, including eight second-class National Scientific Improvement Awards, 14 first-class provincial and ministerial awards, 35 patents, and 212 published Science Citation Index papers.118

In 2015, the hospital invested 2.9 billion RMB in a new development project in Caolu, Pudong District, with a plan to build a new branch in Pudong with 2,000 beds. The project is expected to be completed within 3 years.119

Rendering: Changzheng Hospital Pudong Campus120

 

This hospital worked overtime to conduct a large number of transplants. In a phone call made by a reporter of Sound of Hope Radio, 121 a doctor at the hospital said “We have several shifts working 24 hours a day. We have four teams that can do [transplants].” When asked about the source of donor organs, the doctor said, “We [use] a unified national source. This, how do we say this…only doctors know.”

Xijing Hospital Affiliated with the Fourth Military Medical University

Rendering: Xijing Hospital Affiliated with the Fourth Military Medical University

 

Xijing Hospital, with 3,218 beds, is considered one of China’s top five hospitals in terms of its comprehensive capabilities. It has won numerous awards, grants, and citations.122

This hospital is accredited for all organ transplant types that are conducted in China and has numerous records identifying itself as the first or only institution able to do certain procedures, including the first reconstituted bone xenograft, first partial living-donor liver transplant, first partial living-donor intestine transplant, and China’s first assistive living-donor liver transplant between adults with non-matching blood types. 123

Established in 2000, Xijing Hospital Organ Transplant Center has become the largest organ transplant center in Northwestern China. It specializes in transplantations of the liver, kidney, heart, lung, small intestine, pancreas, and combined organ transplants, as well as the related clinical and basic researches. In 2005 it became the Military Organ Transplant Center with the approval of PLA Department of General Logistics, and then became the Military Organ Transplant Research Institute in 2012. It claims to lead the country in transplantations of liver, kidney and heart. 124

With Professor Dou Kefeng, a well-known expert on hepatobiliary-pancreatic-spleen surgery and liver transplants, as the director of the Organ Transplant Research Institute, and Professor Tao Kaishan as the director of the Organ Transplant Center, the transplant center has a professional team of surgeons, ICU doctors, anesthesiologists, pathologists, and nurses. The center has a total of 110 beds, including 15 ICU beds equipped with the most advanced automatic disinfection laminar flow system in China and negative pressure rooms, and 95 advanced transplant beds. 125

The Research Institute’s online introduction states that it conducted China’s first partial living-donor liver transplant in 1997. The patient survived for 13 years, the longest-surviving living liver transplant recipient. The Institute later conducted China’s first auxiliary orthotopic living-donor partial liver transplant, the first partial liver transplant between adults with different blood types, China’s first high-altitude piggyback liver transplant, Asia’s first combined liver-heart-kidney transplant, Asian’s first and the world’s fourth combined liver-pancreas-kidney transplant, the world’s second and China’s first face transplant, and other operations, such as heart and combined heart-lung transplants. 126

The Research Institute has long-term partnerships and regular collaboration with internationally acclaimed organ transplant centers, including the Thomas E. Starzl Organ Transplant Center at the University of Pittsburgh in the U.S., the Organ Transplant Department of Kyoto University in Japan, the Bismuth Liver Center in France, and the Das Deutsche Herzzentrum (Germany Heart Center) in Berlin.

In recent years, the center has undertaken 37 important projects, including key scientific projects under the nation’s “Eleventh Fifth-Year Plan”, three projects under the National “863 Program”, one key project and 16 general projects under National Natural Science Foundation, and two key breakthrough projects under the People ’s Liberation Army’s “Eleventh Fifth-Year Plan.” It has total research funding of 26.5 million RMB. The center has published 126 SCI papers and 593 articles in domestic journals. It has won a multitude of national, provincial, and military scientific development awards.127

Photo: Xijing Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department 128

 

The Hepatobiliary, Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery Department of Xijing Hospital is an important location for the study of the subject in Shaanxi Province. It also serves as a People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Centre. According to a Xinhua report in 2010, published with the collaboration of the People’s Liberation Army, the department had 120 hospital beds and performed more than 200 operations per month. Its inpatient department treats more than 2,800 patients per year, with over 80% of operations being major surgeries. 129

The department has conducted nearly all types of liver transplants: traditional, piggyback, from living-donor to split liver to heterotopic liver transplants in the spleen fossa. It conducted China’s first living-donor liver transplant, Asia’s first combined heart-liver-kidney transplant, the world’s first heterotopic liver transplant in the spleen fossa, the world’s first dual split heterotopic liver transplant with one supplied liver, Asia’s longest-surviving combined liver-kidney-spleen transplant, the living-donor liver transplant on the youngest recipient, and the liver transplant at the highest elevation.130

The director of this department, Dou Kefeng, successfully conducted China’s first living-donor liver transplant in 1997. Dou currently serves as the vice director of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA)’s Surgery Division, vice director of the CMA’s People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Division, and holds a range of other professional roles. These positions have led him to preside over major national research projects connected with the 863 Plan and a variety of other important research programs under civilian and military auspices. Total funding for his current research projects exceeds 20 million RMB. 131

The hospital’s urology department claims to be the largest and most comprehensive in northwestern China. Its official website says it has 80 beds, performs 50,000 outpatient services per year, and conducts about 2,000 operations per year, 70% of which are large or medium-scale operations. In 1978, the department conducted the first allograft kidney transplant in northwestern China. It claims to lead the country in survival ratios with its kidney transplant patients and the transplanted kidneys. Combined multiple-organ transplantation is one of its specialties. In January 2005, it conducted the first combined liver-kidney-spleen transplant, which became the sixth case in the world. However, its official website states that it conducts only 40 to 60 kidney transplants per year since it completed the first allograft kidney transplant in northwestern China in 1978.132

The extent of its pioneering surgeries, however, would indicate that there is far more activity going on.

The cardiovascular surgery department of Xijing Hospital is a nationally prioritized discipline and a post-doctoral station. It maintains frequent academic exchanges with some of the world’s best cardiovascular hospitals in the U.S., Germany, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and Mexico, employing 12 internationally- renowned experts as guest professors and providing clinical internships to international students. 133

The department has 3 hospital inpatient sections with 180 beds, an ICU section with 30 beds, 6 dedicated operating rooms, and a cardiovascular research lab of 2,000 square meters equipped with the advanced equipment and a large team. Heart transplantation has become routine surgery at this hospital, its website says. The department conducts close to 3,000 operations annually, 65% of which are complex operations on serious diseases.

The department twice completed three consecutive heart transplants within one day, one instance of which was attributed to vice director Professor Wang Hongbing, who holds the national record for that particular feat. Professor Cai Zhenjie, director of the Armed Police General Hospital Cardiovascular Disease Research Institute and long-time director of the Fourth Military Medical University Cardiovascular Surgery Research Institute, is the other record holder as of September 2003.

Summary of national-level Military Hospitals

Hospital Highlights

Hospital Qualifications and Facts

1
First Affiliated Hospital of People’s Liberation Army General Hospital
(People’s Liberation Army No. 304 Hospital)
National level renal transplant centre

This is the first affiliated hospital of the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital. The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery is its key department with a strong technical force of many well-known specialists and professors. Currently it has 3 Master’s degree advisors, 2 postdoctoral fellows, 5 staff with PhDs and 4 with Master’s degrees. It has 60 inpatient beds, admits more than 1,700 inpatients and conducts more than 1200 surgeries per year. 134

The current director is concurrent professor Jiang Kai, deputy director of the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital. Jiang was under the tutelage of a well-known hepatobiliary surgery specialist in China, named Huang Zhiqiang, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Jiang studied liver transplantation at Queen Mary Hospital of the University of Hong Kong under professor S.T. Fan. Jiang was responsible for a number of major programs of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and other military special programs.

The Department of Urologic Surgery has over 30 medical staff, including 1 chief surgeon/professor, 7 associate chief surgeons; 7 staff with PhDs and 4 staff with Master’s degrees. In recent years the department has developed its business rapidly and has had a certain influence in the Beijing region and national wide.135

Director of this department, renal transplant specialist Ye Linyang has been working in the field for 28 years. He has taught dozens of junior doctors and helped some other institutions to carry out kidney transplants. He has trained a number of core organ transplant personnel.136

3
Air Force General Hospital
National level renal transplant centre
Urologic Surgery Department

This is the clinical teaching hospital for more than 10 universities, such as the Second Military Medical University, the Third Military Medical University, the Fourth Military Medical University, etc. It has 2 leading scientists who lead the People’s Liberation Army general medical technology, 1 Air Force chief expert, 13 Air Force level experts, 76 high-level scientific and technological personnel, 18 experts receive special allowances from the State Council. It is a national medical training base, has 125 Master and doctoral advisors, 34 doctorate or Master joint authorization. In 2015, it had 17 post-doctoral stations, over 600 graduate students, interns and visiting physicians. It had undertaken more than 110 research programs for the state, the army and the City of Beijing by 2014. 137

It has nearly 300 deputy chief physicians or above, and 400 professionals with Master’s or Ph. D. degrees. This hospital has over 1000 registered beds.

This hospital has been doing clinical research and practice in liver, kidney, pancreas-kidney, cornea, bone marrow, and stem cell transplantation.

It started kidney transplants in 1986, and has many associated departments related to kidney transplantation, which has guaranteed its seamless development. The hospital offers a special “green channel” (wait -free service) for renal transplant patients.

Kidney transplantation is the important featured specialty of its Urologic Surgery Department. It can carry out 5 kidney transplantation operations simultaneously. 138This department has 7 professionals with senior titles, 6 with doctoral degrees and 3 with Master’s degrees. It has 70 beds.139

The hospital conducted the military’s first combined pancreas-renal transplantation in 1999, and it was also the first hospital in the Beijing area to carry out a liver transplant. 140

The director of its Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhang Hongyi, is a doctorial advisor. He engaged in liver transplantation research in 1989, and obtained special national liver transplant funding. He studied at the University of Tokyo as a visiting scholar in 2000, participating in live liver transplant clinical work. He has published more than 60 papers in domestic and foreign core journals, and gained many Science and Technology Progress Awards of the military and from the Ministry of Health. 141

Its hematology department has carried out half-matching bone marrow transplants since 1999, and claims to remain at a leading level both in China and abroad. 142

4
Armed Police General Hospital
National level liver and renal transplant centre

The Armed Police General Hospital, formerly the Central Guards Regiment Health Centre, is a large, modern, comprehensive 3A hospital providing medical care, health care, education, research, and rescue services. The hospital has 1,380 beds. Its staff includes 13 doctoral advisors and 100 Master’s advisors. It is a national-class postdoctoral research station and a training base for medical students and postgraduates.143

Its Liver Transplant Institute is claimed to be Beijing’s largest liver transplant centre. It was jointly founded by the hospital and the Tianjing Oriental Organ Transplant Centre in late 2001, with liver transplant specialist Shen Zhongyang as the director. It set up a highly-skilled organ transplant team with rich clinical experience in performing liver and kidney surgery, organ transplantation medicine, and organ transplant care. Shen established a standard procedure for liver transplantation that has made it a routine clinical practice in China. Shen’s teams in Tianjing and Beijing both set, and maintained a record of carrying out the most transplants in China. 144

This hospital’s website claims that the volume of liver transplants ranked second place nationwide from 2003 to early 2008. During this period, Shen helped 47 hospitals in 16 provinces start their own liver transplantation services. 145

Zang Yunjin joined the Liver Transplant Institute in January 2005 and served as deputy director. From January 2005 to January 2008, he also instructed many hospitals in Hebei, Henan, and Shandong province to carry out liver transplants. 146

Chen Xinguo began to specialize in liver transplant clinical work in 2002. Chen participated in nearly 2,000 liver transplant surgeries in 13 years and has independently completed over 600 liver transplants. Chen pioneered several types of transplants in China and has completed difficult transplant surgeries, including combined liver-kidney and split liver transplants. He also assisted over 10 institutes inside and outside Beijing to carry out liver transplants. Chen was responsible for major initiatives of two state projects—The 863 Program and The 973 Program, two provincial projects, and two projects for Chinese People’s Armed Police Force.147

In 2005, Liu Hang from the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre formed a renal transplant team at this institute. By July 2010, the number of kidney transplants performed by the team had ranked first in the Beijing-Tianjin area.148 Liu also trained over 10 junior surgeons in liver and kidney procurement.

Niu Yujian has been working in the transplant field for nearly 20 years, and founded the organ transplant drop-in centre. The centre treats more than 30,000 organ transplant recipients annually, including liver, kidney, lung, combined liver-kidney and pancreas-renal transplant recipients.149

5
The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
National level kidney, heart and lung transplant centre

This is one of the largest military hospitals in China. The hospital’s official website and its domestic internet have hardly any information about the scale of organ transplants.

Its kidney transplant centre is well known in China. This department’s featured specialties include allograft kidney transplantation. Currently, it has 11 surgeons, including 7 with senior professional titles, 5 with doctoral degrees and 2 with Master’s degrees.150

Currently its official website shows: “Since it successfully carried out the first case of an allograft kidney transplant in August 1978, the hospital has completed more than 1700 cases of kidney transplant.” “It has 36 inpatient beds.” This less than 100 average annual transplant volume obviously does not match its status of “one of the most famous transplant centres in the country.”

Liu Long, the director of its urologic surgery department, specializes in kidney transplantation. Liu is a committee member of the Chinese Organ Transplantation Society and the Kidney Transplantation Group of the Chinese Urological Association. He is also the deputy director of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Professional Committee.

The website of its hepatobiliary surgery department shows that it has 11 surgeons, including 1 chief and 7 deputy chief surgeons. Among them are 1 postdoctoral fellow, 4 doctorates and 3 Master’s degree holders. The only message about liver transplantation on this web page states that Zhou Wenping, director of this department, studied Liver Transplant in Sweden’s Hudding Hospital from 1996 to 1997. He successfully implemented the first liver transplant in the Shenyang Military Region in October 2002.151

The hospital’s ophthalmology department is renowned in the People’s Liberation Army, especially for its specialty of cornea transplantation. The hospital claims to have the largest eye bank in northeastern China as well as in the entire military. This eye bank has abundant donor sources. The quantity of cornea transplants performed is at the forefront among major hospitals in the northeast. It is also known as the only hospital in the Shenyang region capable of readily providing supplies to meet the demand of cornea transplantation patients.152

8
Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestines transplant centre

This is the first affiliated hospital of the Southern Medical University (formerly the First Military Medical University). As the earliest medical centre to serve foreigners, Nanfang Hospital has admitted more than 110,000 patients from over 90 countries and regions. The Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission named it “Exemplary Medical Division [Serving] Overseas Chinese.” It ranks 16th in the latest ranking for China’s best hospitals (Fudan edition). The hospital has 2,225 beds, more than 600 senior professionals and technical personnel, 102 doctoral advisors, and 148 Master’s advisors. 153

The Department of Organ Transplantation has over 30 medical staff members, including 2 professors, 6 associate professors and associate chief surgeons, and 4 attending surgeons. The majority of the professionals have PhDs. Three of them were trained as post-doctoral fellows at the Organ Transplant Centre of the University of Pittsburgh, the Organ Transplant Centre of Northwestern University, and the Organ Transplant Centre of University of Cincinnati, respectively. 154

The head of the kidney transplant centre, Professor Yu Lixin, a PhD advisor, is a distinguished expert for the Bureau of Health Care for Central Officials, head of the national kidney transplant professional group, and chairman of the Guangdong Organ Transplantation Society. He has achieved an advanced level internationally in research on kidney, liver, pancreas, and abdominal multi-organ transplants.155 In collaboration with colleagues, Yu has completed over 3,800 surgical cases of kidney transplants. He has published over 200 papers as the first author, and trained one hundred graduate students so far. 156

In a paper published in 2004, he stated that as early as November 2001, the hospital had conducted 2,123 kidney transplants. The hospital consistently ranks second in the nation for the volume of kidney transplants performed.157

The research conducted by this Department of Kidney Transplantation has reached an internationally advanced level. In addition, the research in the field of liver transplants, combined pancreas-kidney and liver-kidney transplants has been leading nationally. Since 1978, the quantity and quality of kidney transplants are among the national top list, ranking second to top in China and top in Guangdong Province. 158

Its Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery is one of largest of three liver transplant centres in southern China. It carried out relevant basic and clinical research early, and is one of the institutions carrying out the largest volume of liver transplants in Guangdong Province. The centre is state-authorized to offer Doctorate Degree. In recent years, it has been responsible for more than 10 programs from the National Natural Science Foundation, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, and the Key Technologies R & D Program of Guangdong Province, while supported by one million RMB of funding. 159

Professor Zhou Jie, the director of the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, a PhD advisor, has especially deep knowledge in the subject of liver transplantation. Deputy Director Yang Dinghua, a PhD advisor, has worked in the area of clinical application and research on hepatobiliary surgery and liver transplants for over 20 years.160

The hospital has trained a large number of doctoral and Master’s students in its kidney transplantation program. These students began with no knowledge of kidney transplantation but became relatively skilled kidney transplant specialists after finishing their internships.161

6
No. 117 Hospital of Nanjing Military Region
National level kidney transplant centre

This is the largest comprehensive military general hospital in Zhejiang Province that combines medical treatment, education, research and health care. It serves as a teaching hospital for Zhejiang University, Second Military Medical University, Jiangsu University, Anhui Medical University, Wenzhou Medical University, and Medical College of Hangzhou Normal University.162 It has over 1000 beds. 163

Its large kidney disease centre provides internal medicine and surgical therapy, dialysis treatment, and kidney transplant for kidney diseases. The centre currently has 83 beds. It’s one of three medical institutions in Zhejiang Province permitted to perform kidney transplantation operations.164 However one can hardly find any information related to its organ transplant volume on the website.

Xu Longgen is the chief surgeon in the kidney transplant team. He is the deputy director of the Organ Transplantation Association of the Nanjing Military Region, and a standing committee member of Zhejiang Organ Transplantation Association. He has worked in this area for almost 30 years. However, the only transplant volume data on the website shows that Xu has given guidance in carrying out over 600 cases of kidney transplants.165

9
Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
National level kidney transplant centre

This is the second affiliated hospital of the Southern Medical University and the School of Clinical Medicine. It has more than 400 senior medical staff, with over 90% holding Master’s degrees in the medical field. The hospital has a capacity of 2,200 beds. 166

Organ transplantation is the hospital’s featured specialty. It was among the earliest institutions with accredited doctoral programs in organ transplantation. Its organ transplant centre is one of China’s major transplant centres, and has achieved an internationally advanced level in cadaveric renal transplantation, relative-donor kidney transplantation, liver and combined pancreas-kidney transplantation. Its kidney transplantation enjoys widespread repute both in China and abroad. 167

The centre is broken into three sections: an organ transplant ward, blood purification facilities, and a transplant immunity research centre (including tissue typing). Its website shows the transplant ward has 42 expandable beds, 30 hotel style single rooms, and 10 ICU beds. All its general wards have a separate bathroom, color TV, refrigerator, and telephone. 168

There are 37 members in the department. It has 8 professors and associate professors, 2 associate chief technicians, and 4 lecturers, including 6 PhDs, with Master’s degrees, two who has studied abroad, and 4 doctoral and Master’s advisors.

According to a website archive in 2013, the centre had already performed over 3,100 kidney transplants. After three years, the number of total kidney transplants shown on the website didn’t increase, but was reduced to around 2000. This transplant centre received various national and provincial research funding of over 3.7 million yuan as part of the tenth five-year plan. They have published over 70 academic papers in the past 3 years, 13 are included as part of the Science Citation Index, one of the article has SCI impact factor of 36.6. It has developed large number of doctorate, master’s and fellows over the years. 169

Zhao Ming, director of the organ transplant department and a member of the National Organ Transplant Committee, has very rich experience in kidney, pancreas, combined pancreas-kidney, liver, and islet cell transplantation. 170 He is responsible for a number of major national, military, and Guangdong province research projects, and has published over 20 papers in major journals and participated in the writing of two books.

Lin Minzhuan used to be the deputy director at the hospital (he is now deputy director of organ transplant department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College). When he was on staff he personally conducted 2,600 kidney transplants, dozens of liver transplants, and combined pancreas-kidney transplants, according to the hospital’s website. He has directed or worked for a number of hospitals in organ transplants, and is vice chairman of the Organ Transplantation Group of the Guangzhou Committee of the Medical Society, and a standing committee member of the Organ Transplantation Group of the Guangdong Provincial Committee.171

The hospital does not have a liver transplant permit, but it performed liver transplants. Its hepatobiliary surgery department website says that it began liver transplants in 2001, and that since then its technology has matured. It completed the first Rh-negative rare blood type, and the first “no-blood transfusion” liver transplant surgery in mainland China. The longest patient survival after kidney transplant exceeded 14 years. 172

7
No. 180 Hospital of Nanjing Military Region
National level liver transplant centre

The hospital’s liver transplant centre has 4 chief surgeons, 3 deputy chief surgeons, 1 PhD, and 10 staff members with Master’s degrees. The hospital hosts Master’s degree training units for many well-known medical universities, including Southern Medical University, Medical College of Nanchang University, Fujian Medical University, etc.

In September 2002, the centre successfully performed the first liver transplantation in southern Fujian Province. It holds 4 “national first and only” records in liver transplantation technology. It has 126 beds.173

Zhang Chenghua, director of the liver transplant centre, has a good reputation and is influential among his peers. 174 He has expertise in maintaining the function of organs, liver and kidney transplantation.175

Its Ophthalmic Department is the Ophthalmology Centre of Nanjing Military. It has spearheaded keratoplasty in Fujian Province, and established the Quanzhou eye bank. It routinely carries out keratoplasty and amniotic membrane transplants. 176 In June 2010, it was officially named the No. 180 Ophthalmic Hospital. It has 180 beds, over 10 staff members with senior professional titles, and 22 with Master’s degrees and above.177

10
Daping Hospital of Third Military Medical University
National level kidney transplant centre
The Department of Urologic Surgery

This hospital has over 2,000 professional technical staff, including over 200 of senior rank, nearly 200 PhD and Master’s advisors, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and 4 principal scientists of the state “973” project. All of its clinical disciplines and first level disciplines in biomedical engineering offer PhD and graduate degree programs with clinical post-doctoral research stations. It trains over 1,800 students from various disciplines and accepts over 500 post-graduate physicians annually.

It was one of the first hospitals in China to carry out heart, liver, lung, kidney, and other major organ transplants. It performed the first pediatric heart transplant in China, and its lung transplant survival time ranks second in China.178

Its Department of Urologic Surgery was founded in 1965 as one of China’s earliest urologic in-patient wards. It has distinct advantages and features in renal transplantation; its academic and technological strength are advanced in southwestern China and even nationally. Its academic disciplines also exert important influence in the country. Its team includes 11 senior professionals, 7 intermediate professionals, 6 post-doctoral fellows, and 11 PhDs. It has more than 150 beds. 179

This department has 5 PhD and 2 Master’s advisors. It recruits 8 to 10 PhD and graduate students each year. In total, it has trained over 100 medical PhD and Master’s students and several hundred post-graduate physicians for the military and the region. It currently undertakes over 20 projects, including those from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Health Research Funds, and the Ministry of Education’s Starting Foundation for Talent Returning from Overseas. In recent years, it has won 13 military, provincial, and ministry-level awards and obtained over 30 national patents. It has published over 40 SCI research papers overseas and over 200 articles in domestic journals.

The hospital’s annual gross revenue was 36 million RMB in the late 1990s, when transplant operations had just begun. In 2009, its revenue exceeded 900 million RMB, a 25 fold increase.180

The hospital has undertaken over 660 major and key research projects, including the state “973” and “863” programs, as well as those from the National Natural Science Foundation. It has won over 150 second prize awards or above at the national, military, provincial, and ministerial levels. In China’s twelfth five-year plan, it was awarded more than 400 national patents. In 2014, it earned 10 million RMB from its scientific and technological achievements. In just the past 5 years, it has published over 650 high-quality articles in the SCI and EI journals and the three top journals, Cell, Nature and Science.

11
No. 153 Hospital of Jinan Military Region
National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was founded through the merger of the People’s Liberation Army No. 153 Hospital and the People’s Liberation Army No. 460 Hospital (former People’s Liberation Army Air Force Zhengzhou Hospital)181. It is the teaching base for dozens of military universities, including the Fourth Military Medical University, People’s Liberation Army Medical College, Bethune Medical University, Zhengzhou Medical University, etc. It has trained a large number of experts for both military and civilian hospitals. It has over 1,800 beds, 5 post-doctoral fellows, over 30 staff with PhD degrees, over 120 staff with Master’s degrees, over 130 staff with senior professional titles, and over 150 with intermediate professional titles. 182

Its Urologic Surgery Department pioneered kidney transplant surgery in Henan Province in the 1980s. Kidney transplantation has become the hospital’s specialty and is domestically “state of the art” The department has 8 senior technical staff, 2 staff members with PhDs, and 3 staff members with Master’s degrees. It has 80 beds. 183

According to media reports, this hospital had completed about 800 cases of kidney transplants as early as in September 2000. It actively solicited business in Southeast Asia. 184

On September 26, 2000, the Overseas Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan column of People’s Daily reported this type of story: Lu Fang, a 53-year-old private school teacher in Taipei, learned from the media that the People’s Liberation Army 460 Hospital had successfully conducted about 800 kidney transplants. Lu Fang arrived the hospital in Zhengzhou on September 3. After eight days, the transplant experts spent more than three hours to implement a kidney transplant for Lu Fang. Since the disease situation was complex, this hospital specifically prepared two kidney “donors” for her transplant surgery.

According to a doctor’s thesis from the Urologic Surgery Department of the People’s Liberation Army No. 460 Hospital, by 2005, the hospital had carried out at least 1,217 kidney transplants. 185 The department began liver transplants in 2003.

www.china-kidney.com was the official website of the Central China People’s Liberation Army Renal Transplant Collaboration, which was formerly the People’s Liberation Army 460 Hospital Urology Surgery. The contents of this website included an online booking transplant form, a transplant expert’s quiz, a video on a live kidney transplant surgery, and an organ transplant matching software available for download. (The site can no longer be accessed.)186

12
PLA No. 452 Hospital
(Air Force Hospital of Chengdu Military Command)
National level kidney transplant centre

According to a Xinhua report in 2009, the People’s Liberation Army 452 (Chengdu Air Force) hospital, spearheaded by the development of kidney transplantation, leaped from a “township-level scale” to the equivalent of a large hospital within several years. It claims that it has performed the most kidney transplants in Sichuan Province.187

In 2000, the hospital had 89 vacancies for doctors, and its facilities and equipment remained at the same level as they were in the early 1990s. Additionally, the hospital owed external debts of over 6 million RMB. However as of 2008, it had increased its in-patient-bed numbers from 210 to more than 1,000; the value of its medical equipment increased from 30 million to 120 million RMB, and the hospital’s income increased from 20 million in 2000 to 260 million RMB in 2008.188

At present, the hospital has more than 1,500 beds, 78 senior professionals, 195 intermediate professionals, 26 staff with PhDs, 95 with Master’s degrees, and a large number of post-doctoral fellows. The hospital’s kidney transplant capabilities are well-known both in southwestern China and nationwide.189

On April 28, 2006, a reporter from an oversea media conducted an investigation into this hospital under the guise of a relative of a patient looking for organs. Yahong Xu, the director of the urologic surgery department, said that after mid-May 2006, there would be a number of kidneys available for transplant, and also that there were some voluntary donors, and that organs would be provided by young, healthy, Falun Gong practitioners. Xu himself had conducted more than 500 transplants, or more than 100 per year over the previous two or three years.190

After this was publicly exposed, the hospital deleted pages containing transplant data from its official site. Xu’s personal web page claimed that he had a high reputation in the field of organ transplantation in southwestern China and within the entire military, but shows he has only carried out 287 kidney transplants during his nearly 20 years of experience in renal transplantation.191

During the same investigation, Honghui Li, the director of the kidney transplant centre at Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital (Second Hospital of Tsinghua University) in Beijing, said that, due to the recent lack of donors in Beijing, he had been assigned to Chengdu, Sichuan Province a couple of months ago, where there were more kidney sources in renal transplantation.192

32
Shaanxi Armed Police Corps Hospital
National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital claims to be among the top in the nation in the field of kidney and heart transplantation. Its patients come from nearly 20 provinces and cities in China, as well as regions including Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas.193

The hospital’s Wanke Heart Centre has a first-class surgical team that consists of many of China’s renowned experts and scholars who have studied overseas. The centre claims to have carried out the most heart transplants in China.194

Senior medical specialists in liver transplantation and hepatobiliary surgery have been hired to work part time or as consultants from the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, the Armed Police General Hospital, etc. Meanwhile, it has recruited college students from more than 30 prestigious universities, greatly improving the quality and structure of the medical team.195

Kidney transplantation is one of its fields of expertise. Zhao Xueyi, vice president and academic discipline leader, has conducted a large number of kidney transplant research projects and studies, and applied them to clinical practice. Zhao has also set three national records.

The hospital performed three transplants simultaneously in the morning of June 7, 2005, with more than 30 medical staff on the front lines. Professor Liu Zhenwen, a renowned liver transplant expert, served as the chief surgeon of liver transplants. Professor Zhao Xueyi, the director for the kidney transplant centre, was the chief surgeon for kidney transplants.196

89
General Hospital of Jinan Military Command
National level liver, kidney transplant centre

This hospital has 2,360 beds, 390 staff with graduate degrees and above, including 177 PhDs and post-doctoral fellows, and 213 staff with master’s degrees. Its specialties include kidney, liver, cornea and bone marrow transplants.197

In 1987, the hospital established its Urologic Surgery Department, which was approved to be the Urologic Surgery Centre of Jinan Military Command. In 2005, it was approved to serve as a kidney transplant centre and dialysis centre for the military by the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department. Since 2003, it has carried out various liver, combined liver-kidney, and other types of transplants.198 Its transplant volume ranks among the top ten in China and the top five in the military.199

Many members of its transplant surgery department have studied at well-known liver transplant centres, including Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital in Shanghai, and the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University.

Director Zhen Zhong of the hepatobiliary surgery department studied under academician Wu Mengchao at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital in Shanghai. He also studied pancreatic surgery under Professor Hu Xiangui at Changhai Hospital in Shanghai.200

On December 1, 2008, Qilu Evening News reported that Director Li Xiangtie was leading the urologic surgery team with top-notch surgeons/physicians. The team was capable of performing 6 kidney transplants simultaneously. It set a national record of performing 16 kidney transplants within 24 hours. Its annual transplant volume has ranked among the nation’s top 10 for 10 consecutive years.201

The Qilu Evening News reported on July 28, 2003 that this hospital charges 30,000 to 40,000 RMB for a kidney transplant and 20,000 to 40,000 RMB per year for immunosuppressive drugs thereafter. At the time, it had performed more than 1,300 kidney transplants.202

The hospital’s website states that its urologic surgery department has completed 1,500 kidney transplants since 1978.203 However, according to the Qilu Evening News in 2008, the department once performed 16 kidney transplants in 24 hours. In addition, transplantation.org.cn reported in 2012 that director Zhang Aimin, claimed that the hospital had performed more than 2,500 kidney transplants between 1978 and 2012.204 The total now showing on the hospital’s website in 2016 is 1,000 fewer than Zhang’s figure in 2012.

Since 2003, its hepatobiliary surgery centre has carried out the first liver transplant in the Jinan Military Region and the first combined liver-kidney transplant in the province.205

Its Ophthalmology Centre established a cornea transplant centre and operates the province’s first eye bank.206

123
General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
National level liver, kidney transplant centre

This hospital has the largest urologic surgery department in southern China and among the southern military command. It began to conduct kidney transplants in 1981. Its staff includes 4 master’s and PhD advisors, one General-level specialist, 8 decorated experts, 7 post-doctoral fellows and staff with PhDs, and 8 staff with master’s degrees. It is noted as having first-class specialized equipment.207

The department has led and participated in over 20 research projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation, the Ministry of Health, and the Guangdong Province Science Committee. It has received 6 national patents and edited nearly 20 monographs. It has published more than 300 papers domestically (more than 10 in SCI journals).

The hospital’s liver transplant centre has a strong and versatile team that is among the best in the province.208 It has carried out clinical research on liver transplants since the 1980s. In recent years, it has completed allogeneic liver, allogeneic piggyback liver, secondary liver, and liver-kidney transplants. It also conducted liver transplants for the elderly (the oldest patient was 78, being the oldest liver transplant recipient in the world).

Professor Huo Feng is skilled in liver transplantation. He studied under academician Wu Mengchao of the Chinese Academy of Science.209

Wang Shaoping, who oversees transplants, is a relatively influential liver transplant specialist in the country and a standing committee member of the Guangzhou Military Command Organ Transplantation Society. He is a contributing editor of the national core Journal of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery and has published more than 20 papers. He has led two research projects funded by the Guangdong Science Foundation and received two military science and technology progress awards.210

“The high success rate, fewer complications, fast sourcing of donor livers, high quality of donor livers, and lower cost of surgery are the advantages of liver transplantation in our department.” Its liver transplant operations are at the forefront in Guangdong Province in terms of surgery volume.211

In the morning of April 21, 2006, the director of its urologic surgery department, Zhu (male with a Hakka accent) told a WOIPFG investigator assuming the identity of a transplant patient over the phone, “Come as quickly as possible. There were 5 transplants last night and 6 more transplants scheduled for tonight. There are some scheduled for next week as well.”212

Its ophthalmology department conducts cornea transplants.

130
No. 181 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
National level liver and kidney transplant centre
PLA Kidney Transplant & Dialysis Centre

This is a training base for graduate students of Southern Medical University, the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, the Second Military Medical University in Shanghai, and other schools. It has a number of People’s Liberation Army medical centres, clinical bases, research institutes, and key specialties under the Guangzhou Military Command. The hospital has over 200 specialists and professors with associate senior titles or above, and over 200 staff with PhD and graduate degrees in medicine. It has more than 1,500 beds.213

It is known to have strong organ transplant capabilities. It serves as the organ transplant centre for Guangzhou Military Command and is the director unit of the academic commission of organ transplantation under the Guangzhou Military Command. It also hosts the organ transplantation branch of the Guangxi Medical Association. It conducted its first kidney transplant in 1986 and the first pancreas-kidney transplant in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in 2000.

A People’s Liberation Army Kidney Transplant and Dialysis Centre was established in its nephrology department. Its kidney transplantation capabilities are claimed to be at an advanced level in the People’s Liberation Army and at a leading level in the Guangzhou Military Command and the Guangxi region. Its staff includes 2 PhD advisors, 4 master’s advisors, 5 chief surgeons, 3 associate chief surgeons, and 4 attending physicians. It has 150 beds.214

The centre performed 8 transplant surgeries on December 30, 2012 alone, including heart, lung, kidney, liver, cornea, and islet cell transplants. Its organ transplant technology is known to be at a leading standard in the nation.215 In March 2016, the hospital was recruiting two organ transplant liaisons.216

Sui Weiguo, the centre’s director, adopted various blood purification methods to remove antibodies in highly sensitive kidney transplant patients. This has significantly improved the transplant success rate. He is the chairman of the Guangzhou Military Command Transplantation Professional Committee, chairman of the Guangxi Medical Association Transplantation Subcommittee, and a board member of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplantation Association.217

The centre’s archived website shows that its bed and medical personnel count has not been updated since 2007. It still claims to perform over 150 kidney transplants per year since 2000. Based on the figure of 150 beds, each bed would in that case be used by only one patient every year. For such a small number of reported transplants, there would be no need for more than ten beds and one chief surgeon, let alone a whole building.

The hospital is not qualified to conduct heart transplants, and its website does not mention the subject. However, Sui Weiguo and other transplantation experts published a paper about acute rejection of heart transplants, based on a study of a group of 157 of his heart transplant patients. Therefore, Sui Weiguo, the director of the kidney transplant centre, has performed heart transplants as well.218

Moreover, Pan Yuchen from People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital and other experts from the cardiothoracic surgery department of the People’s Hospital of Guangxi, conducted experiments and clinical research in heart transplantation using a partially continuous beating technique. The technique is advanced internationally and has been applied in other hospitals extensively.219

The hepatobiliary surgery department’s archived website shows that it has had 50 beds since 2011 and performed over 30 liver transplants in total. However, the number was deleted in 2013.220 The equivalent annual volume of transplants would not meet even the Ministry of Health’s minimum requirement for transplant certification.

In the late 1990s, this hospital and the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing began sharing medical resources and set up remote online consultations. In early 2005, it spent 250,000 RMB to build a remote medical network through military satellites, connecting over 200 military hospitals and more than 1,000 experts. This remote treatment model provides patients with a platform for accessing high-end medical resources.221

131
No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
National level kidney transplant centre

The hospital has more than 1,200 professional staff, including 112 with senior titles and 208 PhDs, master’s degree holders, and post-doctoral fellows. Its organ transplantation department is a specialized centre of the Guangzhou Military Command.222

The Organ Transplant Centre of the hospital was established in May 2004。The first liver-kidney combined transplant was carried out in 2005. 223 In 2010, it established a Transplantation Research Institute and Key Laboratory Training Base that integrates clinical care, education, and research. It has over 20 post-doctoral fellows, PhDs, and Master’s.224

Its 10-story organ transplantation building became operational in 2006.225 It performs kidney, liver, heart, lung, cornea, and multi-organ transplants.

Sun Xuyong, president of the hospital’s Transplantation Research Institute, director of the Guangxi Transplantation Key Laboratory, and director of the Organ Transplant Centre of Guangzhou Military Command, studied under Professor Yu Lixin. Sun founded the Organ Transplant Centre at No. 303 Hospital in May 2004 and founded the hospital’s Transplantation Research Institute in June 2010. His research in kidney transplantation for high-risk uremia patients and multi-organ transplantation is at a leading level in China.226

Though the hospital is qualified for only kidney transplants, it has also carried out liver, lung, and cornea transplants. According to a Guangxi News report on December 14, 2011, more than 60 doctors carried out 6 transplant surgeries in 6 operating rooms simultaneously at No. 303 Hospital on that day. These included liver, lung, pancreas-kidney, and kidney transplants, as well as two cornea transplants. The surgeries continued until 1:00 am and ultimately achieved success.227

Dr. Sun Xuyong stated that the six organs were procured from the same donor, but did not explain the source of the donor. Lan Liugen, deputy director of the surgery division, indicated that this procedure at the hospital had reached an internationally advanced level, and that only transplant hospitals in the United States, Germany, Japan, and other developed countries can procure multiple organs from the same donor simultaneously. At the time, only two hospitals in China had this capability; the other was the Tongji Organ Transplant Research Institute of the Huazhong University of Science and Technology.228

Its organ transplantation department has published 23 academic papers in recent years (12 in core journals), including a series of clinical research on kidney transplants for elderly patients that had won a second-prize People’s Liberation Army medical achievement award.229

This hospital’s Eye Centre is a key discipline for the Guangzhou Military Command and the hospital itself. It is an ophthalmology education base for the Third Military Medical University, Southern Medical University, and other universities. It was one of the earliest institutions in China to carry out cornea transplants. Its surgical volume and technology are at the forefront in Guangxi Province.230

13
Chengdu Military General Hospital
National level kidney transplant centre

Chengdu Military General Hospital serves as a base for kidney-transplant-related medical treatment, research, and education in Southwestern China. It serves as a teaching hospital for the Third Military Medical University, Southwest Jiaotong University College of Medicine, and others. It has 2,500 beds, 11 post-doctoral fellows, 119 staff members with PhDs, 186 with Master’s degrees, 153 professionals with senior titles, and 345 with intermediate titles.231

Its urologic surgery department is one of the main departments conducting organ transplants. Since 1979, the department has continuously carried out kidney transplants for the past several decades now, reaching an advanced level in China. It has 11 surgeons and physicians, including 3 professors and chief surgeons, 4 associate professors/associate chief surgeons, 4 attending surgeons, 5 staff members with PhDs, and 2 with Master’s degrees. In addition to kidney transplants, the department also carries out liver and bone marrow transplants. The department has 50 inpatient beds.232 233

Its hepatobiliary surgery department has performed liver transplants extensively. The department has 2 professors, 3 associate professors, and 3 attending surgeons, all of whom hold PhD degrees and two of them were trained overseas. This department has 58 beds.234

103
Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestine transplant centre

This large, comprehensive military hospital located in the mid-southern region of China began to carry out clinical kidney and liver transplantation in the late 1970s. It was one of the pioneering institutions to conduct organ transplants in China.

Its urologic surgery department is now the centre of kidney transplantation in the Guangzhou Military Command.235 It has 126 open beds and a professional team consisting mainly of PhDs and Master’s degree holders.236

The hospital website claims its Urology Surgery Department has carried out more than 1,500 kidney transplants, more than 130 liver transplants and 11 combined liver and kidney transplants.237

However, just one surgeon—Tang Ligong, the chief surgeon of the department—is listed on the website as having carried out over 1,200 kidneys and more than 100 liver transplants.238 Thus, if the number of transplants attributed to Tang was accurate, it would mean that the many other surgeons working full time at the hospital had only performed 300 kidney transplants over more than a decade.

The same problem arises with the data as of June 2009, when the website says that Tang Ligong had carried out 1,100 kidney transplants. Based on these numbers, he only carried out around 100 transplants in the next 7 years. All this is suggestive of far greater transplant numbers than stated, and a deliberate attempt to obscure, distort, and low-ball the actual numbers.

Incidentally, Tang Ligong was caught in a telephone call, published in 2008, talking to an individual he took to be the family member of a patient. He said “It does not matter if donors are Falun or not. If it is needed, we use Falun Gong [practitioners]”239

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Medical University and Wuhan General Hospital coordinate over the use of source organs from Falun Gong practitioners according to WOIPFG’s investigation.240

References

14 Seven Groups of Data Demonstrate the Leap Achieved by the Chinese Military Medical System During the Past 30 Years
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《新华网》七组数字浓缩中国军队医疗卫生30年飞跃 2008年12月17日

15 WOIPFG Releases List of 7371 Medical Personnel from 765 Non-Military Medical Institutions Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners
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WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Liberation Army and Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
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《追查国际发布中共765家非军队系统医疗机构涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的7371名医务人员的追查名单》
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17 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital
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18 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Urology Department
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19 “High-End Medical Organizations – People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital International Medical Centre.”
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22 “The Truth Behind Li Qihua’s Renunciation in People’s Daily.” Minghui.org.
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23 Matas, David; Kilgour, David. “BLOODY HARVEST – Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong
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24 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army 2010-11-17
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25 Brilliant History of Hepatobiliary Surgery at the PLA General Hospital, Xinhua Net, July 4, 2007
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《解放军总医院肝胆外科的辉煌史 》,新华网,2007年07月04日

26 Hepatobiliary Surgery – Doctor Introduction – Dong Jiahong. Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital.
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27 Department of Kidney Transplantation at Yiyang People’s Hospital haodf.com
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益阳市人民医院肾移植科 好大夫在线

28 China Reforms Transplant Practices in Bid to Join International Community
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29 “The Hepatobiliary Department’s Battle Team.” Xinhua Net. July 10, 2007
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30 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery
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解放军总医院肝胆外科简介

31 “The Hepatobiliary Department’s Battle Team.” Xinhua Net. July 10, 2007
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肝胆外科的战斗团队, 新华网 2007年07月10日

32 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery
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https://web.archive.org/web/20160113021128/http://www.301hospital.com.cn/web/ksabout/65.html
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33 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Urology Department
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34 Progress of China’s Clinical Kidney Allografts
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35 The People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Research Institute building
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全军器官移植中心大楼

36 The PLA General Hospital
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中国人民解放军总医院

37 Brief Introduction of the Datacentre of the Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation
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38 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
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解放军309医院器官移植中心简介 发表时间:2010-11-17

39 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1182
https://archive.is/biUsM
石柄毅-何梁何利基金

40 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
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解放军309医院器官移植中心简介

41 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1182
https://archive.is/biUsM
石柄毅-何梁何利基金

42 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
http://309yzzx.cnkme.com/department?preview=yes
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解放军309医院器官移植中心简介

43 Brief Introduction of the Second Affiliated Hospital to General Hospital (No. 309 Hospital) of the People’s Liberation Army
Good Doctors Online May 7, 2008
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解放军总医院第二附属医院(原309医院)简介 好大夫在线 2008-05-07

44 Exclusive interview with Shi Bingyi – the director of Organ Transplantation Center of No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army: Organ Transplant needs to be innovative Source: Xinhua Military – Xinhua Net February 06, 2012
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45 (no footnote)

46 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1182
https://archive.is/biUsM
石柄毅-何梁何利基金

47 The Chinese Kidney Transplantation Datacentre Becomes the World’s Second Largest Renal Transplantation Database
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中国肾移植数据中心 成全球第二大肾移植数据库

48 Ming Cai – Baidu Encyclopedia Baidu Encyclopedia
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百度百科-蔡明

49 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
Dated: 2010-11-17,
http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
http://web.archive.org/web/20140417235354/http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
解放军第309医院器官移植中心简介 发表时间:2010-11-17

50 Entering the Well-Known Specialty Center of the People’s Liberation Army: The Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309
Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army Xinhua Military – Xinhua Net February 28, 2012
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2012-02/28/c_122763047.htm
https://archive.is/wLAPm
走进全军知名专科中心:解放军第309医院器官移植中心2012年02月28日

51 “The Road of Organ Transplantation in China.” Dooland.com. Source: Oriental Outlook. September 27, 2013.
http://www.dooland.com/magazine/article_303295.html
http://archive.is/U7wHH
中国器官移植之路

52 The Third Comprehensive Ward Improves Its Working Process and Shortens the Average Length of Hospitalization of
Kidney Transplant Patients West China Hospital, Sichuan University 2013-06-28
http://www.cd120.com/htmlnewsdongtaixinwen/62072.jhtml
https://archive.is/v98GE
第三综合病房改进工作流程,缩短肾移植患者平均住院日 四川大学华西医院 2013-06-28

53 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
Dated: 2010-11-17,
http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
http://web.archive.org/web/20140417235354/http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
解放军第309医院器官移植中心简介 发表时间:2010-11-17

54 Medical School of Nanjing University
http://baike.baidu.com/view/209736.htm
https://archive.is/a3Enp
南京大学医学院

55 Li Leishi – Baidu Encyclopedia Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/98418.htm
https://archive.is/CFCG0
黎磊石 百度百科

56 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Center for Kidney Diseases
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131090815/http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所

57 The postdoctoral research station at the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
http://company.zhaopin.com/CC398703915.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131104633/http://company.zhaopin.com/CC398703915.htm
中国人民解放军南京军区南京总医院博士后科研工作站

58 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131090815/http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所

59 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131090815/http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所

60 200-2 Nanjing Military Command General Hospital Research Centre for Kidney Diseases Introduction Good Doctor Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUnQ3sFh7UcoLDoWk/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/uHpqI
南京军区总医院肾脏病科介绍_好大夫在线

61 Decision to Learn from Comrades Li Jieshou and Li Leishi China Military Online March 16, 2007
https://web.archive.org/web/20130606081811/http://www.chinamil.com.cn/site1/2007ztpd/2007-03/16/content_764882.htm
“关于向黎介寿、黎磊石同志学习的决定” 中国军网

62 Li Leishi – Baidu Encyclopedia Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/98418.htm
https://archive.is/CFCG0
黎磊石 百度百科

63 Brothers Academicians – Interview of Nanjing Military Command General Hospital
Vice Presidents Li Jieshou and Li Leishi
Source: Xinhua News Agency 2007-06-14
http://www.stcsm.gov.cn/xwpt/kjdt/257058.htm
https://archive.is/qDtIt
兄弟院士——记南京军区南京总医院副院长黎介寿, 黎磊石(上)

64 Breakthrough of One Thousand Kidney Transplant Performed at General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
Source: Sina News December 6, 2004
http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2004-12-06/06574444739s.shtml
https://archive.is/9GLDd
南京军区总院肾移植突破千例

65 Chinese Renal Transplant Handbook ” Published in Shanghai Filling the Gaps in Guiding Clinical Practice in China
China Medical Tribune Author: LiYuanyang April 7, 2005
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2005-11/267.htm
https://archive.is/DoBYX
《中国肾移植手册》在沪首发指导临床实践填补国内空白 来源:中国医学论坛报 作者:李远洋2005-04-07

66 China Published the Second Edition of Kidney Transplant Handbook October 9, 2009
http://paper.people.com.cn/smsb/html/2009-10/09/content_360174.htm
https://archive.is/Mr4xK
中国肾移植手册第二版问世 2009-10-09

67 Liu Zhihong, Nanjing Military Command General Hospital
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=ebf11c3e-a3ce-4672-a81f-2873963aa8fb
http://archive.is/IZSQZ
南京军区南京总医院-刘志红

68 Academician Zhihong Became Dean of Medical School of Nanjing University
http://news.xinhuanet.com/renshi/2012-07/13/c_123408051.htm
刘志红院士任南京大学医学院院长2012年07月13日

69 BiomedExperts Zhi-Hong Liu
www.biomedexperts.com/Profile.bme/835739/Zhi-Hong_Liu

70 Li LS, Liu ZH. kidney transplant – PubMed – NCBI Search result :
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Li+LS%2C+Liu+ZH.+kidney+transplant
https://archive.is/n6Lq1

71 Introduction to Academician Zhihong Liu
www.njszb.com/introduce.php?para=1
https://archive.is/mDRWy
院士介紹:劉志紅

72 Recurrent or de novo IgA nephropathy with crescent formation after renal transplantation
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18661411
http://web.archive.org/web/20160607042526/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18661411

73 Special Malignancy Pattern in Chinese Renal Transplantation Recipients: A Single Centre Experience and Literature Review
http://www.apocpcontrol.org/paper_file/issue_abs/Volume12_No12/3347-51%20c11.19%20Qiquan%20Sun.pdf
https://archive.is/b1e5N

74 Circulating Anti-endothelial Cell Antibodies Are Associated with Poor Outcome in Renal Allograft Recipients with Acute Rejection
cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/3/5/1479.full.pdf

75 Conversion from Calcineurin Inhibitors to Sirolimus Maintenance Therapy in Renal Allograft Recipients with Risk Factors
file.scirp.org/Html/7012.html
https://archive.is/E1KFo

76 13% of Chinese have kidney disease, most died due to can’t get a donor organ
jk.scol.com.cn/12/0309/11/VXPA8J971GL69YSG.html
https://archive.is/yiOf9
中国患肾病率达13% 多数因等不到供体器官死亡

77 AKI & CRRT Conference Information
www.crrtonline.com/conference/02_faculty_bio.php?facultybio=291
https://web.archive.org/web/20150831140621/http://www.crrtonline.com/conference/02_faculty_bio.php?facultybio=291

78 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a
https://archive.is/oygEn
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所

79 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Center for Kidney Diseases
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a
https://archive.is/oygEn
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所

80 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality Sohu Health 2008-11-27
http://health.sohu.com/20081127/n260870584.shtml
https://archive.is/NWzWL
黎磊石:死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到 搜狐健康 2008-11-27

81 Li Leishi – Baidu Encyclopedia Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/98418.htm
https://archive.is/CFCG0
黎磊石 百度百科

82 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality Sohu Health 2008-11-27
http://health.sohu.com/20081127/n260870584.shtml
https://archive.is/NWzWL
黎磊石:死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到 Sohu Health 2008-11-27

83 WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 PLA and Armed Police Hospitals
Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45100#_Toc401944927
追查国际发布中共军队和武警系统100家医院涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的2098名医务人员的追查名单

84 Brief Introduction of the Urinary Transplant Program at Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
Dated: April 1, 2012
http://cnfzzyy3.xm12.host.35.com/ksjs_show.asp?ArticleID_ks=16&classid_ks=19
https://archive.is/gE3Vz
《南京军区福州总医院》泌尿移植学科简介2012年4月

85 Division of Urology at Fuzhou General Hospital Good Doctor Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLPfWDzKX3HVJ2rF-e/jieshao.htm
http://archive.is/SU7I7
福州总院泌尿外科 好大夫在线

86 Tan Jianming’s Advanced Accomplishments People’s Daily
http://health.people.com.cn/n/2014/0604/c385611-25104541.html
https://archive.is/kfG6Q
谭建明先进事迹 《人民网》

87 Completing 5 Liver Transplants in 17 Hours Without Sleep or Rest Transplantation China,
Source: Southeast Express March 10, 2014 Author: Shuping Huang
http://www.chinanews.com/tp/2014/03-03/5903781.shtml
https://archive.is/DpyDl
“17小时不眠不休完成5台肝移植手术” 日期:2014-03-10 来源:东南快报 作者:黄淑平

88 A Brief History of the Urology Surgery Department of the PLA Kidney Disease Centre, p.157
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image007.jpg
https://web.archive.org/web/20150928122350/http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image007.jpg
《全军肾脏病中心泌尿外科简史》 157页

89 The Liver Transplantation Centre at Southwest Hospital The World of Liver and Gallbladder
http://www.hbsky.org/gyz/gyzyemian.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20110513034714/http://www.hbsky.org/gyz/gyzyemian.html
西南医院肝脏移植中心《肝胆天下》

90 A ‘Panacea’ for Treating End-Stage Liver Disease”
Hbver.com, Source: Health News December 30, 2004
http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200412/3427.html
https://archive.is/WoUyJ
“对付终末期肝病这里有‘金刚钻’” 文章来源:健康报 《战胜乙肝网》更新时间:2004-12-30

91 A ‘Panacea’ for Treating End-Stage Liver Disease”
Hbver.com, Source: Health News December 30, 2004
http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200412/3427.html
https://archive.is/WoUyJ
“对付终末期肝病这里有‘金刚钻’” 文章来源:健康报 《战胜乙肝网》更新时间:2004-12-30

92 Inside Story of China’s Pillaging of Human Organs (Part I) Epoch Times
http://tw.epochtimes.com/gb/6/10/19/n1491866.htm
龙延:中国盗取人体器官黑幕(上)

93 Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery Chinese Baike Interactive Encyclopedia
http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E3%80%8A%E4%B8%AD%E5%8D%8E%E6%B6%88%E5%8C%96%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91%E6%9D%82%E5%BF%97%E3%80%8B
https://archive.is/EN9az
《中华消化外科杂志》

94 Brief Introduction of the Renal Division of the Third Military Medical University Affiliated Southwest Hospital
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZDiSanJunYiDaXueFuShuXiNanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5188.htm
http://archive.is/CS45T
第三军医大学附属西南医院肾科简介

95 Department of Ophthalmology at Southwest Hospital
http://www.swehchina.com.cn/info_view.aspx?id=273
https://archive.is/tEiYI
第三军医大学西南医院眼科

96 The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in China
Source: Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces,
Dated: June 2004, 15 (6) Author: Yu Lixin , Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
http://web.archive.org/web/20160131013506/http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
我国临床同种肾脏移植进展《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期 第一军医大南方医院器官移植中心 于立新

97 Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital- Anting Campus
http://www.yamashitasekkei.co.jp/works/list/shanghaiehshospital.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20130501035500/http://www.yamashitasekkei.co.jp/works/list/shanghaiehshospital.html
上海東方肝胆外科医院安亭院区

98 Introduction to Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital dated 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20150531090527/http://www.ehbh.cn/intro.php
东方肝胆外科医院-医院概况 2015年

99 Organ Transplant Department at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital
https://web.archive.org/web/20150210074238/http://ehbh.cn/departments.php?section_id=633
上海东方肝胆外科医院肝脏移植科

100 Special Treatment Department at The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College
http://www.ehbh.cn/departments.php?section_id=3854
https://archive.is/6fZbI
特需诊疗一科 – 科室导览 – 第二军医大学第三附属医院

101 Overview of departments at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, dated 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/departments.php?section_id=3857
https://web.archive.org/web/20120721015505/http://www.ehbh.cn/departments.php?section_id=3857
肝外一科 – 东方肝胆外科医院-科室导航 2015年

102 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital),
Q&A about the new branch, dated February 2016
http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=225900&parent=225897&special_id=2
https://archive.is/LBMSz
第二军医大学第三附属医院(东方肝胆外科医院)- 新院问答 2016年2月

103 Introduction to Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, dated 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20150531090527/http://www.ehbh.cn/intro.php
医院概况 – 上海东方肝胆外科医院 2015年

104 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital),
introduction to the new Anting branch, dated February 2016
http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=225898&parent=225897&special_id=2
http://web.archive.org/web/20160203014623/http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=225898&parent=225897&special_id=2
第二军医大学第三附属医院(东方肝胆外科医院)安亭新院简介 2016年2月

105 Introduction to Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, dated 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20150531090527/http://www.ehbh.cn/intro.php
医院概况- 上海东方肝胆外科医院 2015年

106 Wu Meng Chao, a person whom can be entrusted life to
Source: News Network of the Chinese Communist Party – People’s Daily, dated August 27, 2012
http://dangshi.people.com.cn/n/2012/0827/c85037-18843681-1.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160213215617/http://dangshi.people.com.cn/n/2012/0827/c85037-18843681-5.html
吴孟超:一个可以托付生命的人 (来源:中国共产党新闻网——人民网) 2012年08月27日

107 Shanghai Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Anting Campus
http://www.yamashitasekkei.co.jp/works/list/shanghaiehshospital.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20130501035500/http://www.yamashitasekkei.co.jp/works/list/shanghaiehshospital.html
上海東方肝胆外科医院安亭院区

108 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital)
Anting branch started trial running, dated October 17, 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=2665&id=13197
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131060323/http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=2665&id=13197
第二军医大学第三附属医院(东方肝胆外科医院)在安亭开诊试运行 2015-10-17

109 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital)
Anting branch started trial running, dated October 17, 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=2665&id=13197
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131060323/http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=2665&id=13197
第二军医大学第三附属医院(东方肝胆外科医院)在安亭开诊试运行 2015-10-17

110 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital),
introduction to the new Anting branch, dated February 2016
http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=225898&parent=225897&special_id=2
http://web.archive.org/web/20110210230352/http://jinqiao.pudong.gov.cn/jq_zxdt/2009-11-16/Detail_280561.htm
第二军医大学第三附属医院(东方肝胆外科医院)安亭新院简介 2016年2月

111 Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Organ Transplant Institute
http://www.shczyy.com/front/officeShow.aspx?id=39
https://web.archive.org/web/20160213014803/http://www.shczyy.com/front/officeShow.aspx?id=39
上海长征医院-器官移植研究所

112 Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Organ Transplant Institute
http://www.shczyy.com/front/officeShow.aspx?id=39
https://web.archive.org/web/20160213014803/http://www.shczyy.com/front/officeShow.aspx?id=39
上海长征医院-器官移植研究所

113 Zhu Youhua of Changzheng Hospital, a fighter against kidney diseases, by Ren Quan and Dong Yuqing at Wen Hui Po
http://www.shenyounet.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-3838
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125011436/http://www.shenyounet.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-3838
长征医院朱有华:修行艺术的肾斗士》 2010年9月11日 《文汇报》 任荃 董悦青

114 Introduction to Zhu Youhua of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital
http://zyouh.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125011653/http://zyouh.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
上海长征医院肾移植科-朱有华简介

115 Introduction to Shanghai Changzheng Hospital
http://www.chzpetct.com/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160121144605/http://www.chzpetct.com/
上海长征医院简介

116 Prognostic Effects and Treatments of Severe Hepatitis Cases
Source: Journal of Clinical Surgery Volume 14, Issue 6, June 2006 Fu Zhiren and Ma Jun
http://555.epac.to/kp/index.php?url=1o1C16yvykyNygyuyL1j1z1myYynyfyTyd1yyV1n1A1OyF1pyXyKyZyP1D1v1vy3yZyiyEyg1u1F0i1FyByEyN1L1yyHybyg1K1d1qyg1h16yV1eyD1JyC1J1d1py4ynyS1i18yd1p
http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_lcwkzz200606009
https://web.archive.org/web/20160205021511/http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_lcwkzz200606009
重型肝炎急诊肝移植的预后影响因素及处理 《 临床外科杂志》 2006年6月第14卷6期 傅志仁, 马钧

117 Investigation report on organ transplants in Shanghai Minghui.org
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/6/23/74738.html
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/6/16/130559.html
调查线索:上海器官移植调查报告(图) 《明慧网》

118 Introduction to Shanghai Changzheng Hospital
http://www.chzpetct.com/
https://archive.is/4q80b
上海长征医院简介

119 Changzheng Hospital Pudong New Branch held the ground-breaking ceremony
http://jinqiao.pudong.gov.cn/jq_zxdt/2009-11-16/Detail_280561.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20110210230352/http://jinqiao.pudong.gov.cn/jq_zxdt/2009-11-16/Detail_280561.htm
长征医院浦东新院举行奠基仪式

120 Rendering of Changzheng Hospital Pudong New campus
http://www.smmu.edu.cn/_s2/02/bd/c1a701/page5.psp
https://archive.is/iQuhC
长征医院浦东新院效果图

121 Recording of the doctors: There were a large number of live organ sources Doctors worked over night to conduct organ transplants Epoch Times / Source: Sound of Hope
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/4/12/n1284729.htm
医生录音: 5.1前大量鲜活供体 加班移植

122 Introduction to Xijing Hospital, dated April 7, 2012, sources: military.people.com.cn
http://military.people.com.cn/GB/8221/71065/241958/241963/17594735.
html https://archive.is/vlDay
西京医院简介 2012年04月07日 来源:人民网-军事频道

123 Introduction to Xijing Hospital, dated April 7, 2012, sources: military.people.com.cn
http://military.people.com.cn/GB/8221/71065/241958/241963/17594735.html
https://archive.is/vlDay
西京医院简介 2012年04月07日 来源:人民网-军事频道

124 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/yangzhaoxudr_2232291766.htm
http://archive.is/pbL3e
西京医院移植中心简介

125 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/yangzhaoxudr_2232291766.htm
http://archive.is/pbL3e
西京医院移植中心简介

126 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/yangzhaoxudr_2232291766.htm
http://archive.is/pbL3e
西京医院移植中心简介

127 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/yangzhaoxudr_2232291766.htm
http://archive.is/pbL3e
西京医院移植中心简介

128 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Hepatobiliary, Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery Department
http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/gdwk/
https://web.archive.org/web/20150303001119/http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/gdwk/
西京医院肝胆胰脾外科-简介

129 Stories of Professor Dou Kefeng, director of Xijing Hospital Affiliated with the Fourth Military Medical College
Hepatobiliary Surgery, source: Xinhua Net, dated June 10, 2010
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2010-06/10/content_13644338.htm
https://archive.is/Z78cN
记四医大西京医院肝胆外科主任窦科峰教授 新华网-新华军事 来源:健康报 2010年06月10日

130 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Hepatobiliary, Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery Department
http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/gdwk/
https://web.archive.org/web/20150303001119/http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/gdwk/
西京医院肝胆胰脾外科-简介

131 Dou Kefeng: Open and Sincere, published on Scientific Digest, by Hou Jie, on March 18, 2014
http://paper.zgkjxww.com/Html/2014-3-14/6547.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125072307/http://paper.zgkjxww.com/Html/2014-3-14/6547.html
窦科峰:披肝沥胆献真情 《科技文摘报》 新闻作者:侯洁 发布时间:2014-03-18

132 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Urology Department
http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/mnwk/
https://archive.is/S4Hf6
西京医院-泌尿外科简介

133 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Cardiovascular Department
http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/xzwk/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125191344/http://xjwww.fmmu.edu.cn/ksweb/xzwk/
西京医院-心血管外科简介

134 Introduction to the Hepatobiliary Surgery department People Liberation Army No. 304 Hospital
http://www.pla304.cc/304hospital/gdwkzxjj/81.jhtml#position
https://archive.is/ACc46
解放军304医院 – 肝胆外科

135 Introduction to the Urologic surgery department People Liberation Army No. 304 Hospital
http://www.pla304.cc/304hospital/mnwkzxjj/259.jhtml#position
https://archive.is/xs77g
解放军304医院 – 泌尿外科

136 Ye Linyang – Baike.com. Source: Interactive Encyclopedia (2016), retrieved on Jan. 23, 2016
http://www.baike.com/wiki/叶林阳&prd=so_1_doc
https://archive.is/G75bH
叶林阳: 互动百科 2016

137 Introduction to the Air Force General Hospital, PLA
http://www.kj-hospital.com/dh.asp?id=295&sid=298
https://archive.is/3mnqd
空军总医院简介

138 Introduction to the Air Force General Hospital, PLA
http://www.kj-hospital.com/dh.asp?id=295&sid=298
https://archive.is/3mnqd
空军总医院简介

139 Introduction to the Urologic Department of Air Force General Hospital, PLA
http://www.kj-hospital.com/ny.asp?id=197
https://archive.is/ECSF4
中国人民解放军空军总医院泌尿外科

140 Introduction to the department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of the Air Force General Hospital, PLA
http://www.kj-hospital.com/ny.asp?id=195
https://archive.is/2UKPN
中国人民解放军空军总医院肝胆外科

141 Expert: Zhang Hongyi, the department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of the Air Force General Hospital, PLA
http://www.kj-hospital.com/zj.asp?id=195&zjid=429
https://archive.is/HyMNK
空军总医院肝胆外科-专家-张洪义

142 Introduction to the Air Force General Hospital, PLA
http://www.kj-hospital.com/dh.asp?id=295&sid=298
https://archive.is/3mnqd
空军总医院简介

143 Brief Introduction of the Armed Police General Hospital
http://www.wj-hospital.com/hpinfo/index.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150906063315/http://www.wj-hospital.com/hpinfo/index.htm
武警总队医院简介

144 Feature department of the Armed Police General Hospital – Liver Transplantation Research Centre
news.xinhuanet.com January 22, 2008 (original article from the official web site of the hospital)
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2008-01/22/content_7472855.htm
http://archive.is/lte0k
武警总医院特色科室-肝移植研究中心

145 Feature department of the Armed Police General Hospital – Liver Transplantation Research Centre
news.xinhuanet.com January 22, 2008 (original article from the official web site of the hospital)
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2008-01/22/content_7472855.htm
http://archive.is/lte0k
武警总医院特色科室-肝移植研究中心

146 Feature department of the Armed Police General Hospital – Liver Transplantation Research Centre
news.xinhuanet.com January 22, 2008 (original article from the official web site of the hospital)
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2008-01/22/content_7472855.htm
http://archive.is/lte0k
武警总医院特色科室-肝移植研究中心

147 Academic leaders of Liver Transplantation Research Centre of the Military General Hospital of Beijing, PLA
http://www.wj-hospital.com/yjshzx1/yz/
http://archive.is/0IOoh
武警总医院特色科室-肝移植研究中心:学科带头人

148 Armed Police General Hospital – Expert – Liu, Hang
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZWuJingZongYiYuanZhuanJiaTuanDui/2011-02/958.htm
https://archive.is/k9tYo
武警总队医院-专家-刘航

149 Armed Police General Hospital – Expert Team – Niu, Yujian
http://www.wj-hospital.com/expert/wk/gyzzx/19550.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160101211924/http://www.wj-hospital.com/expert/wk/gyzzx/19550.htm
武警总队医院-专家团队-牛玉坚

150 Introduction to The Department of Urologic Surgery of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/ksjsShowNew.aspx?type=泌尿外科&id=121
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118221726/http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/ksjsShowNew.aspx?type=%E6%B3%8C%E5%B0%BF%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91&id=121
沈阳军区总医院泌尿外科介绍

151 Introduction to The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region – Zhou Wenping
http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/ksxsdtrNew.aspx?type=%E8%82%9D%E8%83%86%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91&id=76
http://web.archive.org/web/20160229231713/http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/ksxsdtrNew.aspx?type=%E8%82%9D%E8%83%86%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91&id=76
沈阳军区总医院肝胆外科介绍 -周文平

152 Introduction to The Department of Ophthalmology of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/ksjsShowNew.aspx?type=眼科&id=85
http://web.archive.org/web/20160206014835/http://www.syjqzyy.com/UI/ksjs/ksjsShowNew.aspx?type=%E7%9C%BC%E7%A7%91&id=85
沈阳军区总医院眼科介绍

153 Introduction to Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.nfyy.com/aboutus/index.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118002420/http://www.nfyy.com/aboutus/index.html
南方医科大学南方医院简介

154 The Kidney Transplantation Department of Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/ksjj/a_101556.html
https://archive.is/vLn8d
南方医科大学南方医院肾移植科

155 Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University – Department of Kidney Transplantation – Yu Lixin
http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/doctor_5792.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124014012/http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/doctor_5792.html
南方医科大学南方医院肾移植科于立新

156 Yu Lixin: Bearish worldly glory, only care about the patients Nov 14, 2014 Author: Nanfang Hospital
http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/ksdt/a_102064.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160329033238/http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/ksdt/a_102064.html
于立新:看淡世间荣华 只为病人情浓 作者:南方医院  2014-11-14

157 The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in China Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces,
June 2004, 15 (6)Yu Lixin , Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131013506/http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
398 我国临床同种肾脏移植进展 《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期
第一军医大南方医院器官移植中心 于立新

158 Introduction to the kidney transplant department at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/ksjj/a_101556.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160329024441/http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/syzk/ksjj/a_101556.html
南方医科大学南方医院肾移植科简介

159 The hepatobiliary surgery department at Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/gdwk/ksjj/a_101553.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160329025133/http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/gdwk/ksjj/a_101553.html
南方医科大学南方医院肝胆外科简介

160 Introduction to the hepatobiliary surgery department at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/gdwk/DoctorList.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160329032030/http://www.nfyy.com/ks/wk/gdwk/DoctorList.html
南方医科大学南方医院肝胆外科/医生简介

161 My Experience of Guiding Postgraduates in Practicing During Kidney Transplant Clinical Work
Chinese Journal of Medicine November 2003, Volume 3, Issue 11 Fu Shaojie, Yu Lixin
http://journal.9med.net/html/qikan/yykxzh/zhyyzz/200311311/qt/20080903014144232_16178.html
https://archive.is/uDQEY
在肾移植临床工作中指导研究生实习的体会 《中华医药杂志》2003年11月第3卷第11期 付绍杰 于立新

162 Introduction to Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
http://www.117yiyuan.com/about/
https://archive.is/ThMq8
南京军区第117医院介绍

163 Introduction to the Nephrology at Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
http://www.shentouxi.com.cn/zhuanjia/jiuyizhiyin_3278.html
https://archive.is/vdOh6
南京军区第117医院肾病科

164 Department of Nephrology at Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
Source: 120.net
http://old.120.net/keshi/4c626cxi2h3kf468.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313081858/http://old.120.net/keshi/4c626cxi2h3kf468.html
209 南京军区第117医院肾病科 来源:120健康网

165 Xu Longgen, Department of Kidney Transplantation at Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
http://z.xywy.com/zhuanjia-117petct-shenyizhike-xulonggen.htm
http://archive.is/C8XhQ
南京军区第117医院肾移植科许龙根

166 Introduction to Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.zjyy.com.cn/about/Introduction.htmls
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124014825/http://www.zjyy.com.cn/about/Introduction.htmls
南方医科大学珠江医院简介

167 The Organ Transplant Centre at Zhujiang Hospital
http://zjyy.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=51211
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124014723/http://zjyy.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=51211
珠江医院器官移植科中心

168 Organ Transplant Centre of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.zjyy.com.cn/dept/index.aspx?id=132
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124014708/http://www.zjyy.com.cn/dept/index.aspx?id=132
南方医科大学珠江医院器官移植中心

169 Organ Transplant Centre of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.zjyy.com.cn/dept/index.aspx?id=132
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124014708/http://www.zjyy.com.cn/dept/index.aspx?id=132
南方医科大学珠江医院器官移植中心

170 Zhao Ming, Organ Transplant Centre of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.zjyy.com.cn/dept/expert_show.aspx?id=49&pid=132
http://archive.is/D64sB
南方医科大学珠江医院器官移植中心赵明介绍

171 Lin Minzhuan Source: Physician assistant
http://yyk.39.net/doctor/278657.html#practiceExperience
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123082519/http://yyk.39.net/doctor/278657.html
林民专-就医助手

172 Expert – Second Department of Hepatobiliary – ZhuJiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.zjyy.com.cn/dept/expert_show.aspx?id=43&pid=184
http://archive.is/AkNlB
专家-肝胆二科 –南方医科大

173 Brief Introduction to the Department of General Surgery at The 180th Hospital of PLA
http://180yy.com/dep_info_22.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125184702/http://180yy.com/dep_info_22.html
南京军区第180医院普外科科室简介

174 The 180th Hospital of PLA – Department of General Surgery – Zhang, Chenghua
http://180yy.com/exp_info_58.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125054505/http://180yy.com/exp_info_58.html
233A-南京军区第180医院教授,主任医师 – 张诚华

175 The 180th Hospital of PLA, Professor, Chief Physician – Zhang, Chenghua
http://baike.baidu.com/view/3620673.htm
https://archive.is/6LSVJ
南京军区第180医院普外科张诚华

176 180 Ophthalmic Hospital – technical features: penetrating keratoplasty
http://www.qzyk.cn/list_tcjs.jsp?bh=355
https://archive.is/1kfxV
180眼科医院 -特色技术: 穿透性角膜移植术

177 Brief Introduction to the Ophthalmology Hospital of The 180th Hospital of PLA
http://180yy.com/dep_info_30.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125054655/http://180yy.com/dep_info_30.html
南京军区第180医院眼科医院科室简介

178 Brief Introduction to Daping Hospital Affiliated with Third Military Medical University
http://www.dph-fsi.com/dpyy_ysgk.asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124004906/http://www.dph-fsi.com/dpyy_ysgk.asp
第三军医大学附属大坪医院简介

179 The Urologic Surgery Department at Daping Hospital Affiliated with of Third Military Medical University
http://www.dph-fsi.com/ks_2009/default_wk.asp?ks_id=26
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124004841/http://www.dph-fsi.com/ks_2009/default_wk.asp?ks_id=26
第三军医大学附属大坪医院泌尿外科

180 Changes of Daping Hospital During 30 years: Annual Income Increased from A Few Million to 900 Million
http://www.dph-fsi.com/xwdt_nr.asp?id=622
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124004825/http://www.dph-fsi.com/xwdt_nr.asp?id=622
《从年收入百万到9个亿 看大坪医院30年变迁》 来源:《寻医问药网》

181 The PLA 153 Central Hospital (East District)
http://baike.baidu.com/view/3511728.htm
http://archive.is/51n5j
解放军153中心医院 百度百科

182 The PLA 153 Central Hospital, Source: Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1077724.htm
https://archive.is/gK2KA
中国人民解放军第一五三中心医院

183 The Urologic Surgery Department of Jinan Military Region 153 Hospital
http://www.wendaifu.com/findhospital/keshi/id/48645.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312094118/http://www.wendaifu.com/findhospital/keshi/id/48645.html
济南军区第153医院泌尿外科 – 问大夫网站

184 PLA 460 Hospital successfully implement a kidney transplant for a Taiwanese
Source: People’s Daily, 12th Edition (Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan Overseas) 2000-09-26
http://www.ziliaoku.org/rmrb/2000-09-26-12
https://archive.is/aOzqQ
解放军第460医院成功为一台胞实施肾移植手术 来源:人民日报 第12版(港澳台侨) 2000-09-26

185 “Diagnostic Analysis of Concurrent Urinary System Tumors After Kidney Transplant (5 Reports Attached)”,
Source: China Journal of Modern Medicine, 2007, Vol. 17 Issue 05, p.620-622,
Dated: May 1, 2007, Authors: Zheng, Hixia; Feng Hecheng; Wang, Yuheng
http://www.taodocs.com/p-14838710.html
“肾移植术后患者并发泌尿系统肿瘤的诊断分析(附5例报告)”,
来源:《中国现代医学杂志》2007年17卷05期 620-622页,日期:05/01/2007,
作者:郑海霞, 冯合成, 王玉恒

186 Chinese Military Kidney Transplantation Network in Central China
http://www.china-kidney.com/ (The web site cannot be accessed now)
http://web.archive.org/web/20060827173120/http://www.china-kidney.com/yzwd/yzwd.htm
中国军队华中肾移植网

187 “Relying on the market to protect the battlefield,” said Zhang Cong from The PLA No. 452 Hospital
http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscentre/2009-01/12/content_10646876.htm
http://archive.is/ZC1qZ
依托市场 保障“战场”—记解放军452医院院长张聪 2009-01-12

188 “Relying on the market to protect the battlefield,” said Zhang Cong from The PLA No. 452 Hospital
http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscentre/2009-01/12/content_10646876.htm
http://archive.is/ZC1qZ
依托市场保障“战场”—记解放军452医院院长张聪 2009-01-12

189 Introduction of The PLA No. 452 Hospital – haodf.com
http://info.haodf.com/hospital/DE4rO-XCoLU0iOYReRtJXK298J/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123152817/http://info.haodf.com/hospital/DE4rO-XCoLU0iOYReRtJXK298J/jieshao.htm
解放军452医院-好大夫在线

190 Recording: Military hospital said “use kidneys for transplant from Falun Gong practitioners”
source: minghui.org May 2nd, 2006
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/2/126638.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123152922/http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/2/126638.html
录音:军队医院直言使用法轮功学员肾脏 《明慧网》2006年5月2日

191 Introduction to Xu Yahong of the Urologic Surgery Department of The PLA No. 452 Hospital
http://xuyahong8.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123152942/http://xuyahong8.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
解放军452医院 泌尿外科 – 许亚宏

192 Recording: Military hospital said “use kidneys for transplant from Falun Gong practitioners”
source: minghui.org May 2nd, 2006
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/2/126638.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123152922/http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/2/126638.html
录音:军队医院直言使用法轮功学员肾脏 《明慧网》2006年5月2日

193 Kidney Transplant Centre, Armed Police Corps Hospital of Shaanxi
http://ksk.99.com.cn/ks/122655.html
http://archive.is/gpPHE
武警陕西省总队医院肾脏移植中心

194 Department of Cardiac Surgery at the Heart Centre, Armed Police Corps Hospital of Shaanxi
http://ksk.99.com.cn/ks/122647.html
http://archive.is/Eo2XB
武警陕西省总队医院心脏中心心脏外科

195 Documentary on Shanxi Armed Police Corps General Hospital Enhancing Quality of Medical Services
http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2005-09-27/03357044599s.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118231248/http:/news.sina.com.cn/s/2005-09-27/03357044599s.shtml
《愿将玉液护春晖——武警山西总队医院提升医疗服务质量纪实》
2005年09月27日 山西新闻网, 山西日报记者:屈宏太, 张义力, 尚慧辉

196 Three transplant operations performed simultaneously three patients gained new lives
http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2005-06-18/02476202824s.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118232019/http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2005-06-18/02476202824s.shtml
三台移植手术同日开启三位重症患者同获新生

197 Brief Introduction to Jinan Military General Hospital
http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/YYJJ/Index.html
https://archive.is/BcPzz
济南军区总医院简介

198 The Department of Transplantation at Jinan Military General Hospital
http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/SJWK/TSJS/2014/1/17/jqzyy_17526370.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160501135308/http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/SJWK/TSJS/2014/1/17/jqzyy_17526370.html
济南军区总医院移植外科

199 The Department of Urologic Surgery at Jinan Military General Hospital
http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/MNWK/
http://web.archive.org/web/20130605100623/http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/MNWK/
济南军区总医院泌尿外科

200 Introduction to the director of Hepatobiliary Surgery department at Jinan Military General Hospital
http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/GDWK/KSLD/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160419183945/http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/GDWK/KSLD/
济南军区总医院肝胆外科科室领导

201 Jinan Military General Hospital, Qilu Evening News, Dec 1, 2008
http://paper.dzwww.com/qlwb/data/20081201/html/65/content_1.html
https://archive.is/BOqgO
济南军区总医院,2008年12月1日的《齐鲁晚报》

202 The continuation of wonderfulness of life through organ transplant
http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200307/1891.html
https://web.archive.org/save/http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200307/1891.html
器官移植 延续生命的精彩 2003-7-28 文章来源:大众网-齐鲁晚报

203 The Department of Urologic Surgery at Jinan Military General Hospital
http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/MNWK/
http://web.archive.org/web/20130605100623/http://www.jnjqzyy.cn/htm/MNWK/
济南军区总医院泌尿外科

204 Organ transplantation is the renewal of life and health management help “Second Life”
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zshenmeiti/2012-06/6192.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160419181358/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zshenmeiti/2012-06/6192.htm
器官移植为生命续约 健康管理助力“第二生命” 2012-06-13

205 The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Jinan Military General Hospital – Good Doctors Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLPvLFK66N34PvWMSU/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/pqPnA
济南军区总医院肝胆外科-好大夫在线

206 The Ophthalmology Department at Jinan Military General Hospital – Good Doctors Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLPvRuyPv5LwmK7DLi/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/iR8e4
济南军区总医院眼科-好大夫在线

207 The Urologic Surgery Department of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.gzzyy.com/Index/index.php/Sec/index/no/1252379676
https://web.archive.org/web/20141020200136/http://www.gzzyy.com/Index/index.php/Sec/index/no/1252379676
泌尿外科 – 广州军区广州总医院(陆总)

208 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.gzzyy.com/Index/index.php/Sec/index/no/1252379656
https://archive.is/TawZ9
广州军区广州总医院肝胆外科

209 Huo Feng, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLBg0ZaIyyMxUNjSNk.htm
http://archive.is/s983H
广州军区总医院肝胆外科,霍枫简介

210 Wang Shaoping, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzdewUlwYNi3poYKbews.htm
http://archive.is/7HsG7
广州军区总医院肝胆外科,汪邵平简介

211 Department Image: To cure late-stage liver disease via liver transplant Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.gzzyy.com/Index/index.php/Sec/artDetail/sec_no/1252379656/clm_no/1253080384/id/377
https://archive.is/iwn4J
科室形象: 肝脏移植治疗终末期肝病 –广州军区广州总医院肝胆外科

212 Organ Harvesting Atrocities against Falun Gong — Investigation Leads from China’s Guangzhou City
– A Comprehensive Report. Minghui.org. April 4, 2012
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2011/1/8/234649.html
调查线索:广州中共系统活摘法轮功学员器官《明慧网》January 8, 2011

213 Brief Introduction to the People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital
http://job.dxy.cn/bbs/topic/29410887
https://web.archive.org/web/20160310185800/http://job.dxy.cn/bbs/topic/29410887
中国人民解放军第181医院简介

214 People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital – People’s Liberation Army Kidney Transplantation and Dialysis Centre
http://www.gl181.com/szk/
The original site is shutdown, refer to the archived page: https://web.archive.org/web/20141211001949/http://www.gl181.com/szk/
解放军181医院-全军肾移植与透析治疗中心

215 People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital Completes 8 Organ Transplants in One Day
http://www.gltvs.com/dianbo/201212/20121230183408c577781284c149d2_6.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124011224/http://www.gltvs.com/dianbo/201212/20121230183408c577781284c149d2_6.shtml
《解放军第181医院一天完成八台器官移植手术》来源:桂视网

216 Wanhang Health Care professionals – www.job120.com
http://www.job120.com/jobs-view-131686.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160310193846/http://www.job120.com/jobs-view-131686.html
万行医疗卫生人才网www.job120.com

217 The known doctors and hospitals in PLA (Source: Xinhua Net)
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-06/15/content_11545868.htm
https://archive.is/0YeBw
军中名医名院:眭维国 新华网新华军事

218 Acute Rejection after Heart Transplant. Source: Journal of Transplant Medicine, Volume 3, No.1, February, 2008
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/b6fdf37ba98271fe900ef90e.html?re=view
https://archive.is/ejfIn/image
移植心脏急性排斥反应 《移植医学杂志》 2008年2月 第3卷第1期

219 The Project of Experimental and Clinical Application Research of Heart Transplantation Reached the International Advanced Level
http://www.gxhospital.com/article_detail.asp?id=912
https://archive.is/5Hxmk
我院《心脏移植实验和临床应用研究》达国际先进水平

220 The Hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery Department at the PLA No. 181 Hospital
http://www.gl181.com/tese.asp?id=86
https://web.archive.org/web/20130730155725/http://www.gl181.com/tese.asp?id=86
解放军第181医院肝胆胰外科

221 Introduction to People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital
http://www.baike.com/wiki/%25E4%25B8%25AD%25E5%259B%25BD%25E4%25BA%25BA%25E6%25B0%2591%25E8%25A7%25A3%25E6%2594%25BE%25E5%2586%259B%25E7%25AC%25AC181%25E5%258C%25BB%25E9%2599%25A2
https://archive.is/2ybcF
解放军第181医院介绍 互动百科

222 No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1915918.htm?fromtitle=中国人民解放军第303医院&fromid=5459746&type=syn
https://archive.is/nxQz2
广州军区第303医院来源:百度百科

223 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
https://archive.is/wYt9F
广州军区第303医院器官移植科简介来源:中国器官移植网

224 The Appearance of Master’s Advisors at Guangxi Medical University
http://210.36.48.20/infor/Dsjs.aspx?dsdm=95321001
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313033643/http://210.36.48.20/infor/Dsjs.aspx?dsdm=95321001
广西医科大学研究生导师风采

225 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124025836/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
广州军区第303医院器官移植科简介来源:中国器官移植网

226 The Appearance of master’s Advisors at Guangxi Medical University
http://210.36.48.20/infor/Dsjs.aspx?dsdm=95321001
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313033643/http://210.36.48.20/infor/Dsjs.aspx?dsdm=95321001
『广西医科大学研究生导师风采』

227 Six Organs from One Donor Renews Six Lives; Such Transplant Surgeries Uncommon Nationwide
http://news.gxnews.com.cn/staticpages/20130109/newgx50eca3b5-6746649.shtml
https://archive.is/KdarZ
1人供6个器官让6人重生 移植手术在全国为数不多

228 Lanzhou University Second Hospital finished the second DCD transplant, one donor survived five
http://szlzdx.taoyatao.com/firm/V0/Topic.aspx?topicid=92925
https://archive.is/bUltQ
兰大二院完成甘肃省第二例DCD供体器官移植 一供体使五人重生

229
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
https://archive.is/wYt9F
广州军区第303医院器官移植科简介

230 People’s Liberation Army No.303 Hospital – Ophthalmic Centre
http://baike.baidu.com/view/3652332.htm?fromtitle=%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E4%BA%BA%E6%B0%91%E8%A7%A3%E6%94%BE%E5%86%9B%E7%AC%AC303%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2&fromid=5459746&type=syn
https://archive.is/VgqtY
中国人民解放军第303医院-三0三医院眼科中心来源:百度百科

231 Brief Introduction to Chengdu Military General Hospital
http://www.xn120.mil.cn/About
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123152259/http://www.xn120.mil.cn/About
成都军区总医院简介

232 Brief Introduction to Chengdu Military General Hospital
http://www.xn120.mil.cn/About
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123152259/http://www.xn120.mil.cn/About
成都军区总医院简介

233 Brief Introduction to The Department of Urologic Surgery at Chengdu Military General Hospital
http://www.xn120.mil.cn/Depart/Desc/16
https://archive.is/p0df9
成都军区总医院泌尿外科简介

234 The PLA General Surgery Centre (Hepatology Ward) – ChengDu Military General Hospital
http://www.xn91.com/Depart/Desc/18
https://web.archive.org/web/20160121122120/http://www.xn91.com/Depart/Desc/18
成都军区总医院-全军普外中心(肝胆病区)

235 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Good Doctors Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLPTYvYQsHYQ8uQGIO/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/3ThOI
广州军区武汉总院泌尿外科科室介绍,来源:好大夫在线

236 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
http://www.whzyy.net/Item/223.aspx
https://archive.is/I3nQW
广州军区武汉总医院泌尿外科简介,来源:广州军区武汉总医院

237 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
http://www.whzyy.net/Item/223.aspx
https://archive.is/I3nQW
广州军区武汉总医院泌尿外科简介,来源:广州军区武汉总医院

238 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
http://www.whzyy.net/Item/223.aspx
https://archive.is/I3nQW
广州军区武汉总医院泌尿外科简介,来源:广州军区武汉总医院

239 Investigation Report on the Role of Chinese Military and Armed Police Hospitals in Forced Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners,
Source: World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG),
Dated: 2008/04/21-2012/05/29
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/21820
https://archive.is/fBlVk
关于中共军队, 武警医院系统 涉嫌参与活体摘取法轮功学员器官的调查报告,来源:《追查国际》,
日期:20084/21-2012/05/29

240 Collection of Evidence of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners by the Chinese Communist Party,
Source: World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG),
Dated: Revised on March 2, 2015
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/46728
Audio:http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2013/09/35848_11-wuhai.mp3
关于中共活体摘取法轮功学员器官证据专辑,来源:追查迫害法轮功国际组织,日期:2015年3月2日更新

AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter Four: Approved Civilian Transplant Centres

Examples

Organized and directed first by the Ministry of Health and later by its successor, the National Health and Family Planning Commission, civilian transplant centres also grew rapidly after 2000. This growth is apparent especially for the 55 national-level civilian transplant centres in the first batch approved by the Ministry of Health.

Before 2000, these institutions had matured in their technology in kidney and liver transplants. After 2000, the technology was applied to massive numbers of patients. Within a few years, liver and kidney transplants became routine clinical surgery; organ transplantation techniques and volume increased rapidly. These hospitals became the largest transplant centres in their areas, the country, and Asia. These national-level transplant centres popularized their clinical technology throughout the country, trained a large number of transplant doctors, and led the exponential growth of China’s transplant industry.

Tianjin First Central Hospital Organ Transplant Institute

(Oriental Organ Transplant Centre)

Tianjin First Central Hospital’s Organ Transplant Institute is the largest transplant center in Asia and ranked first in China in the cumulative volume of transplants performed for sixteen consecutive years through the end of 2013.241

In September 1998, the hospital established its Organ Transplant Surgery Department, which became the Tianjin Organ Transplant Centre in December 2000 and the Oriental Organ Transplant Institute in November 2003. It integrates clinical practice, teaching, and research.242 The Centre gained influence worldwide and was the first in mainland China to be included in the Clinical Transplants registry.243

Shen Zhongyang

Shen Zhongyang is known as the founder of China’s liver transplant field. From the time he graduated from China Medical University in 1984 until 1998, Shen twice studied in Japan. According to data from the Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation,244 after Shen returned to China in 1998, he began to build an organ transplant division and a transplant institute at Tianjin First Central Hospital, which became the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre. Since then, Shen has been the director of the centre. He became president of the hospital in 2007.

In 2001, Shen set up the transplant centre at the Tianjin Armed Police General Hospital and established the Liver Transplant Institute at the Armed Police General Hospital in Beijing in April 2002. The latter quickly topped the rankings in the Beijing area for the volume and success rate of liver transplants performed.245 He also assisted in the creation of the Jinan Armed Police Organ Transplant Institute and the Qianfoshan Hospital Liver Transplant Centre in Shandong Province.

Shen was a chief expert for transplant research under the 863 Project, a transplant expert in the Central Committee of the Health Core Group, and vice chairman of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Society.246 247

In mainland China, liver transplantation was still in its clinical exploration stage until the end of the last century. It is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. In May 1994, Shen completed the first orthotopic liver transplant after he returned to China; by the end of the century, liver transplants were slowly becoming routine.248

Shen Zhongyang was the first doctor in China to establish a modern transplant centre incorporating multiple disciplines, including anesthesia, transplant pharmacology, and pathology. He also implemented cooperation in treatment before, during and after surgery, as well as quality control.249

Shen pioneered and improved a variety of liver transplant surgical procedures. He developed an integrated prevention system that reduced the recurrence rate of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after liver transplants from over 80% to under 5%. This advance overcame the main obstacle to the development of liver transplantation in China.

Shen also established a multidisciplinary liver transplant standard and procedure, with surgery as the central component. His books include Clinical Liver Transplantation, Modern Clinical Liver Transplantation, China Liver Transplantation, and Liver Transplantation Manual addressing the new theories and technologies he was exploring. Shen also provided training for dozens of transplant units across the country, helping liver transplantation become routine surgery.

According to the 2009 edition of the Tianjin Medical Journal, between January 2004 and August 2008, Shen participated in 1,600 liver graft procurements.250 The now-standard procedure for grafting the liver from a donor lowered the time necessary for the organ to remain at body temperature to under five minutes and reduced the time for procurement operations to thirty minutes.251 His development of this procedure which, according to the Journal article, “suits the characteristics of China,” indicates that Shen very likely participated in a large number of live organ procurement operations, given that the five-minute procurement time indicates that the involuntary organ donor had not yet died when the liver was removed.

In July 2006, the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre became China’s liver transplant training centre. It trained over 385 transplant doctors for other transplant centres, who became the backbone of their departments in hospitals across the country. The Centre also performed a large number of transplants.252

Oriental Organ Transplant Centre

The fifth edition of Phoenix Weekly in 2006 published an article entitled “Investigation into tens of thousands of foreigners going to China for organ transplants; China has become the world’s organ transplant centre.”253 The article also stated that Oriental Organ Transplant Centre is the world’s largest transplant centre.

The Centre’s high bed utilization is reflected in its head nurse’s statement: “The hospital began to accept and treat South Korean patients in 2002. A large number of South Korean patients poured in, making existing facilities insufficient. Now, the hospital has turned the fourth to seventh floors of the 12-floor building into transplant patient wards. It also borrowed the eighth floor of the Tianjin Economic Development Area International Cardiovascular Hospital as a hospitalization area for Korean patients. It has also converted the 24th and 25th floors of a nearby hotel into wards for patients waiting for transplants. Even so, we’re still short of beds.”

The article says that 85% of its patients came from over 20 countries and regions, including South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Egypt, Europe, Israel, Pakistan, India, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. The café in the ward on the fourth floor became an “international conference club,” where patients of different ethnicities gather to exchange their treatment experiences.

Using incomplete data, in the three years prior to the date of the article, over 3,000 patients from South Korea alone underwent organ transplants in mainland China. More than 1,000 people from other countries and regions underwent organ transplants in China every year.

This was not the only hospital with an influx of overseas transplant patients; transplant centres all over the country were attracting and receiving foreign patients. Documented cases include the First People’s Hospital of Zhejiang Province and the Guangdong Nanfang Hospital. The latter facility opened its doors specifically for overseas Chinese and was called the “model medical department for benefiting overseas Chinese” in 1995. It had received over 110,000 patients from over 91 countries and regions for hospitalization and examination. 254 The hospital had completed 2,123 kidney transplants by as early as November 2001.255

Volume of Organ Transplants

The same Phoenix Weekly article256 stated, “According to family members of patients, the Organ Transplant Centre carries out up to 24 liver and kidney transplants in one day. The hospital once set a record of completing 44 liver transplants within one week in December.

Because its 120 hospital beds were insufficient, the Oriental Organ Transplant Center rented a large number of rooms from nearby hotels and a hospital for foreign transplant patients. At the time, the facility had seven liver and kidney transplant teams. They had almost no rest days: “…doctors hurriedly shuttle between wards and operating rooms, with no time to greet one another. They kept saying, ‘These few days are crazy busy, with more than a dozen surgeries a day.’ Some doctors were even “rushing surgeries all night long [and] did not sleep at all.” Doctors complain that the off-season is only a month after the New Year; they are busy until the end of the year and normally don’t go home. The end of the year is particularly busy.”

Because of its growth after 2000, the Center broke ground in 2002 on its new building with 500 transplant beds. The project was funded by the Tianjin municipal government, which aimed to build Asia’s largest integrated organ transplant center.

 

Previous Hard Work Sees Renewed Glory Today — Well-Known Transplant Specialist Professor Shen Zhongyang. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care. February 2006 ...The newly completed Oriental Transplant Center building , opened with 700 beds ... [and] currently has 310 medical professional personnel ...

Figure 4.1 The screenshot of the special interview with Shen Zhongyang in February 2006 by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care

 

According to a special interview with Shen Zhongyang in February 2006 by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care, the newly completed Oriental Transplant Center building had actually opened with 700 beds.257 This was 200 more than the plan.258

In September 2006, Xinhua News Agency reported that this new building officially entered operation. The report stated that its transplant surgery center could simultaneously carry out nine liver transplants and eight kidney transplants.259 The report added that, while focusing on the development of liver transplants, the Center would also develop kidney, pancreas, bone, skin, hair, stem cell, heart, lung, cornea, and larynx transplantation.

… The bed utilization rate has reached 131.1%, an increase of 5.7% from the same time in the previous year. In 2013, based on developmental needs, our hospital has added 300 beds … and adjusted the bed counts allocated for Heart Surgery, …, Urologic Surgery, and the Organ Transplant Center.

Figure 4.2 Snapshot of a report on Enorth Netnews on June 25, 2014

 

Three years later, by October 2009, its bed utilization rate reached 90%;260 utilization reached 131% after it added more beds in 2013.261 According to a report by Enorth Netnews on June 25, 2014, Tianjin First Central Hospital had made progress in its various departments in 2013, with a bed utilization rate of 131.1%, an increase of 5.7% from the same time in the previous year. Based on developmental needs, it had added 300 beds and adjusted the number allocated for several departments, including the organ transplant center.262

The average hospitalization time for liver transplants at this center was 25-30 days but was later shortened to 20-23 days.263 In general, hospitalization times for kidney recipients are much shorter. Even if we count the new building as 500 beds instead of 700, when it achieved a 100% bed utilization rate (around 2010 by its growth trend), the transplant volume may have reached 6,000 to 8,000 per year. With its 131% bed utilization rate in 2013, the corresponding annual volume may have been as high as 7,800 to 10,400. It also added beds later, pushing the annual transplant volume even higher.

The hospital has 17 operating rooms. If these 17 operating rooms were in use at the same time, at least 30 liver and kidney transplants could be completed in one day. Then 30 x 360 = 10,800 transplants could be done in one year. This calculation is based on only a regular utilization rate and a workload of fewer than two operations a day per transplant operating room.

After evidence of live organ harvesting in China attracted international attention, the authorities deleted web pages and claimed that the number of organ transplants had decreased after 2006. It used Tianjin First Central Hospital as an example to promote this story.

On December 18, 2007, Southern Weekly published the article “China is calling a stop to ‘transplant tourism,”264 which claimed that, starting from 2007, the number of transplants at the hospital suddenly dropped significantly due to lack of organ supply, that it conducted only 15 liver transplants in the first half of the year, and that the donors were all patients’ relatives.

Yet, in April 2009, the hospital’s official web page said that it ranked first in the country for the number of liver and kidney transplants for the four preceding years.265 The hospital could not have performed only fifteen liver transplants in the first six months of 2007 and still rank first in the country in volume for liver transplants in 2007.

The current official website shows a bed count less than the number before the new building was put into use in 2006 – only 120 transplant surgery beds and seven liver and kidney transplant teams.266 However, its archived webpages since 2003 show that the Centre, funded by the Tianjin municipal government, would include 500 transplant beds and aim for 500 liver transplants, 300 kidney transplants, and other types of transplants per year.267 This suggests that each transplant bed would accommodate only one to two patients per year, an unlikely scenario.

The transplant volume of this centre can be cross-checked with those conducted by individual doctors. Based on published papers, the Centre has 110 doctors participating in liver and kidney transplants, among whom 46 are chief or associate chief physicians and 13 are attending physicians.268

Shen Zhongyang’s biography shows that he had completed close to 10,000 liver transplants by the end of 2014.269 His colleagues and the majority of the doctors he had trained had each independently completed approximately 1,000 transplants.270 Thus, while the centre claims that it has completed 10,000 organ transplants in total, this figure is surpassed by just a few doctors.271

By 2011, Vice President Zhu Zhijun of Tianjin First Central Hospital had completed 1,400 liver transplants and 100 liver transplants from relatives’ donors. 272 Cai Jinzhen, the deputy director of the liver transplant department, had completed 1,500 liver transplants; Cai has worked in the centre since 2000 and had developed in-depth experience in liver transplantation.273

As of July 2006, associate chief surgeon Pan Cheng had independently completed over 1,000 liver transplants, over 100 liver transplants from relative donors.274

Chief surgeon Song Wenli from the renal transplant department had completed over 2,000 kidney transplants and over 100 combined transplants.275Associate chief surgeon Mo Chunbo had completed over 1,500 kidney transplants.276 Chief surgeon Gao Wei had completed over 800 liver transplants and 100 from relative donors after he graduated from the university; he joined the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre in 1999.277

Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University

Rendering: Roadmap of Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University (east campus)

 

Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University was one of China’s first hospitals to conduct heart, liver, and kidney transplants.278 It has set several records as the first hospital to carry out certain types of organ transplants in China and in the Shanghai region. Over the years, the hospital has seen all-around development in kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplantation. It claims to be the most comprehensive organ transplantation centre in China, with its transplant volume growing rapidly each year.279 A report in 2004 showed that its transplant volume had been increasing at a rate of 50% a year. 280 In December 2003, it partnered with the world’s largest organ transplant institute and jointly established the Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital – University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute Liaison Centre.281

Zhongshan Hospital’s kidney transplant unit includes 27 doctors, 6 senior professionals, 5 associate chief physicians. The liver transplant unit includes 10 senior professionals and 9 associate chief surgeons and physicians. The heart surgery department has 3 senior professionals.

The hospital’s Zhu Tongyu carried out the fourth highest-difficulty kidney transplant and Asia’s first combined heart, liver, and kidney transplant. Fan Jia, the president of Zhongshan Hospital and founder of the “Shanghai Fudan Criteria,” has led over 7,000 difficult liver cancer surgeries over 20 years; among them were over 1,300 liver transplants.282

Photo: Zhongshan Hospital lobby and VIP section

 

The hospital performed its first liver transplant in 1978. Since 2001, liver transplantation at this hospital has seen rapid development, with increased variety, more innovations, shorter operating times (4 to 6 hours on average), less bleeding, and fewer complications. Some patients are discharged 9 days after their operation. Transplant recipients extend from patients of liver cancer to those of hepatitis, congenital liver diseases, and other end-stage liver diseases. Its quantity and success rate of liver transplantation lead both the Shanghai region and the country.283

The Liver Surgery Department of Zhongshan Hospital serves as the Shanghai Liver Cancer Clinical Medical Centre, one of China’s two major liver cancer research facilities. It recently started immediate outpatient follow-up treatments with its liver transplant patients, such that a patient receives their operation immediately after an exam and hospital admission, accelerating the treatment cycle. It has attracted patients from more than ten countries and regions and seen dramatic growth in surgery volume. In February 2015, the department moved into the new Shanghai Liver Cancer Medical Centre building. It now has 230 beds, with its scale and medical capabilities among the world’s best.284

The department’s leading figures are Professor Fan Jia and Professor Zhou Jian. It currently has a faculty of 41 members, including 22 with senior professional titles and 16 surgeons qualified to perform liver transplants. 285 Over 90% of its staff hold doctoral degrees.

The hospital’s president, Fan Jia, also serves as the director of the Fudan University Organ Transplant Centre and the director of the Shanghai Liver Cancer Clinical Medical Centre. Between 1999 and 2000, Fan went to the University of Pittsburgh Starzl Transplantation Institute as a senior visiting scholar for clinical surgical research on liver transplantation and liver surgery. For the past 5 years, he has presided over 14 major research subjects at the national, provincial, and ministerial levels, including the 973 Program, 863 Program, the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, and more. He also helped create the Shanghai Standards for transplantation.286 By 2012, he had completed more than 7,000 liver cancer surgeries, including over 1,300 liver transplants.287

The Urology Department of this hospital completed its first cadaveric kidney transplant in January 1970 and was one of China’s first to carry out an allogeneic kidney transplant. In August 1983, the department published China’s first book on organ transplantation, entitled Kidney Transplantation. In 2000, the department made a breakthrough in kidney transplantation and continues to innovate in its clinical work. The department currently has 4 full professors and 5 associate professors, including 2 doctoral advisors and 3 master’s advisors.288

The department’s director, Zhu Tongyu, is currently in charge of China’s organ transplantation clinical research programs. He successfully conducted a very challenging fourth kidney transplant and Asia’s first sequential heart-liver-kidney transplant.289

Its Heart Surgery Department presides over China’s heart transplantation access ordinance. In May 2000, it successfully conducted a heart transplant on the youngest recipient in China. The department has developed a complete set of standard procedures for heart transplantation. All of its heart transplant patients achieve ambulation within 3 days. It claims to account for approximately half of all heart transplants in China. It also innovated in the field of heart preservation technology and set a record for safely preserving a heart for 7 hours. 290

The Thoracic Surgery Department stated on its website that lung transplantation is so far the only effective treatment for end-stage lung diseases. The department has accumulated abundant experience in lung transplantation with significant achievements. It still holds the record of performing a lung transplant for the oldest recipient in Asia.291

On March 1, 2015, Zhongshan Hospital’s east campus officially opened, after an investment of 1.6 billion RMB and 6 years of construction. The new campus has 16 wards, 19 operating rooms, and 4 ICUs.292

Photo: Cardiovascular Disease Clinical Research

 

Photo: Rooftop helipad (16th floor)

 

Zhongshan Hospital operates Shanghai’s key laboratory for organ transplantation. According to incomplete data, the lab is currently working on 18 research projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and 12 research projects at the provincial and ministerial levels, with total funding of over 10 million RMB. In 2013 and 2014, it published 45 Science Citation Index papers and was granted 3 national patents.293

Doctor: “We don’t care who it’s from”

After the public release of information in 2006 about organ harvesting, a doctor at the transplantation center stated to an investigator who called in the name of a patient relative that its organs came from Falun Gong practitioners:294

Shanghai’s Zhongshan Hospital Organ Transplant Clinic (16 March 2006):

Investigator: Hi. Are you a doctor?

Doctor: Yes, I am…

Investigator: … So how long do I have to wait [for organ transplant surgery]?

Doctor: About a week after you come…

Investigator: Is there the kind of organs that come from Falun Gong? I heard that they are very good.

Doctor: All of ours are those types.

On February 8, 2015 the director of Zhongshan Hospital’s liver disease department, Tan Yunshan, stated to an overseas reporter, “All the donor livers are directly extracted at the source. Because we do the extraction ourselves and have access to the original information of the donor organ, we would know for sure whether a donor liver can be used or not…”295 296

When asked whether the hospital used organs from Falun Gong practitioners, Tan answered, “We don’t care whether it’s from a Falun Gong practitioner or not. We don’t get involved in politics. As doctors, we only care about the donor liver, about whether it meets the requirements of transplantation. If it meets the requirements, we don’t care who it’s from.”

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University

Rendering: Bird’s-eye view of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Yuhang Branch297

 

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University has the largest organ transplantation centre in eastern China and one of the largest in China. 298 299 The hospital has 682 experts with senior professional titles and 2,500 beds. The hospital also contains the Ministry of Health Key Research Lab for Multiple Organ Transplantation.

Its Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Centre claim to be China’s largest and most technologically advanced facility of its kind, with more than 340 beds, coupled with a leading number of combined liver-kidney transplants and combined pancreas-kidney transplants completed. Its transplantation team is headed by Zheng Shusen of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, with a staff of 134 medical personnel, including 39 with senior titles. About 60% of these personnel hold doctoral degrees.300

Photo: The Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Centre

 

Zheng Shusen is the president of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, the director of the China Organ Transplantation Society, and the only committee member of the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS) from mainland China. He twice served as the chief scientist presiding over the only two projects in the field of organ transplantation under the National Key Basic Research Program (“973 Program”). In 2006, he helped to create the Hongzhou Criteria, the first of its kind to guide the selection of Chinese liver cancer patients to receive liver transplants. With influence in over 20 provinces, he has helped the Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, the Fudan University Huashan Hospital, the Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, and the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University with their liver transplantation practices. He has trained 6 post-doctorates and more than 160 postgraduates with doctoral and master’s degrees.301

Zheng wrote in a paper that, between January 2000 and December 2004, he had conducted 46 emergency liver transplants, with all of the patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants within 72 hours.302 Zheng claims that he has led over 1,400 liver transplants to date.303

In recent years, the liver transplantation centre has undertaken and completed more than 40 national-level research projects, including two projects under the National 973 Program with Zheng as its chief scientist; one was completed between 2003 and 2008, and the other between 2009 and 2013.304 The team also completed three projects under the National 863 Program, among others.305

Its Kidney Disease Centre claims to be one of China’s largest kidney transplantation centres,306 with 5 personnel with senior professional titles, 12 professors and associate professors, a doctoral advisor, and 6 Master’s advisors. The World Organization to Investigate Persecution of the Falun Gong verified from published medical papers that at least 35 surgeons at this centre have conducted organ transplants. 307

The Centre’s director, Chen Jianghua, specializes in kidney transplantation and combined multiple organ transplantation. He serves as the vice director and secretary for the Ministry of Health Administrative Committee of Scientific Registration System of Kidney Transplantation.308 He has presided over more than 50 research projects at the national, provincial, and ministerial levels, including two projects winning second-class national scientific improvement awards, 6 first-class scientific improvement awards in Zhejiang Province, and 3 second-class provincial awards. He has published more than 280 professional papers, 72 of which were listed by Science Citation Index.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University leads the nation in vital organ transplantation projects. It claims to have the most types of transplants and to rank second in total volume.309 It conducted the first kidney transplant in China in 1972 and the first liver transplant in 1993. It is described as the birthplace of China’s second surge of liver transplants.310

Alongside transplants of liver, kidney, heart and lung, it also conducts upper abdominal multi-organ transplants on a routine basis. It is one of the most renowned kidney transplants centre inside and outside of the country.311 In addition to patients from China, it also provides kidney transplants to patients from over ten countries and regions, including the U.S., Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

On March 14, 2006, Guangzhou Daily reported: Recently, in the operation room of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, the reporter witnessed 5 liver and 6 kidney transplants being conducted simultaneously… At its height, this centre performed 19 kidney transplants in one day. The record set for 6 liver transplants and one multi-organ transplant in one day.312

Huang Jiefu previously worked at this hospital with Zheng Keli, the team leader of the National Kidney Transplant Team who established the hospital’s Organ Transplant Department. Its current director is He Xiaoshun who has reportedly completed 1,300 liver transplants.313 In 2006, it became one of the three liver transplantation training centres of the China Medical Board, with 42 organizations having visited and studied there.314

The Sun Yat-Sen Ophthalmology Centre of the Sun Yat-Sen University has conducted over 40,000 ocular surgeries, including cornea transplants. Both its cumulative and annual volume rank near the top nationwide.315 The Ophthalmology Centre has led over 20 national or provincial key scientific and technological research projects, including the 973 Project, the 863 Project, the Eleventh Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Research plan, key clinical research projects for Ministry of Health, and more than 20 major projects for Guangdong and other provinces. It has also won numerous research grants and published over 200 papers in the past five years.

Beijing Friendship Hospital (Affiliated Hospital of Capital Medical University)

In mainland China, medical universities are affiliated with hospitals. In an education reform, a large number of hospitals were also placed under universities. For example, Capital Medical University has 20 affiliated hospitals,316 including Friendship Hospital, Chaoyang Hospital, Anzhen Hospital, YouAn Hospital, and Tongren Hospital. Because these hospitals are so well-known, they maintained their independent names rather than being renamed as affiliated hospitals of Capital Medical University.

Rendering: Beijing Friendship Hospital 317

 

Rendering: Interior of Beijing Friendship Hospital

 

Beijing Friendship Hospital was named by the Health Bureau as the Beijing Organ Transplant Matching Centre in 1997. It is Asia’s largest kidney transplant centre and had completed the first 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 transplants in China. In 1998, it established the Sino-U.S. Terasaki Matching Centre.318

Hospital number 1-Year Survival Rate (%) End Date Beijing Friendship Hospital 2300 87.3 October 2000 Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital 2123 96.7 November 2001 First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University 1501 87.0 July 1999 People’s Liberation Army (No. 301) General Hospital 1180 88.6 June 1999 First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University 1140 90.2 June 2000 Beijing Chaoyang Hospital 1118 91.2 October 2000

Table 4.3 Progress of China’s Clinical Kidney Allografts, Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Vol. 15, No. 06, June 2004

Yu Lixin, the director of the Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital Organ Transplant Centre,319 the number of kidney transplants completed at Friendship Hospital had already exceeded 2,300 by the year 2000. At that time, many other organ transplant centres had also completed over 1,000 kidney transplants, including Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, and Chaoyang Hospital. Between 2000 and 2006, the number of transplants rose quickly. Because October 2000 was only the beginning of this exponential growth rather than its peak, we conclude that the number of transplants conducted at these hospitals after 2000 was even more substantial.

The First Hospital of China Medical University

(China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre)

Photo: The First Hospital of China Medical University320

The First Hospital of China Medical University is located in Shenyang, Liaoning Province. It is the largest organ transplant centre in northeastern China and also the first hospital to develop liver and pancreas-kidney transplants in the region.321

In 2003, the hospital established its China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC), a transplant institution for foreigners, with customers mainly coming from Japan, South Korea, and other countries. The hospital ran a strong advertising campaign in Japan, promoting targeted services. The campaign stated, “The Organ Transplant Institute not only has several doctors and head nurses who studied in Japan and are familiar with Japanese culture, but most nurses can also speak Japanese, which is convenient for Japanese patients. Post-surgery patients will all be admitted to the Senior Cadre Ward for special care.”322

Using Living Donors

After the exposure of organ harvesting crimes in Sujiatun hospital in 2006, CITNAC removed information regarding living donors from its website.323 In an archived version of the website from September 2004, the Centre had emphasized, “In China we carry out living donor kidney transplants. It is completely different from the deceased body [corpse] kidney transplants you hear about in Japanese hospitals and dialysis centres…Compared to cadaver kidney transplants in Japan, what is offered here is much safer and more reliable.”324

Figure 4.4: China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre’s price chart for organ transplants

CITNAC listed its prices for living organs: over $60,000 USD for a kidney transplant, about $100,000 for a liver transplant, and over $150,000 for lung or heart transplants.325

Numbers Attributed to Government Support

In a 2006 report published in the The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, Chairman Suzuki Masanori of the Japan Transplant Recipients Organization said that a Chinese hospital had conducted 2,000 organ transplants in 2005 alone.326 According to an investigation by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, Masanori was referring to the China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre of the First Hospital of China Medical University, located in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, which is close to Japan.

The Centre’s website stated, “To be able to complete such a large number of organ transplant surgeries every year, we need to give all of our thanks to the support given by the government. In particular, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Public Security system, judicial system, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs have jointly promulgated laws to establish that organ procurement receives government support and protection. This is one of a kind in the world.” 327

Professor Liu Yongfeng is a doctoral advisor and the director of the Centre’s Organ Transplant Division. According to its archived version of the “famous doctors list” from October 23, 2004,328 Liu had studied liver and pancreas transplants at the University of Minnesota Transplant Centre in the U.S. and had mastered techniques in graft procurement, organ transplantation, and postoperative management. He established the Centre’s organ transplant division in 1992 329 and developed kidney, liver, combined liver-kidney, and combined pancreas-kidney transplants. The web page indicates that the Centre has become one of the largest comprehensive organ transplant centres in China and is the largest multi-organ transplant centre in northeastern China. Liu trained over twenty doctoral students and over thirty master’s students. He also guided many units to develop kidney transplant surgeries. The posting indicates that he had been promoted to vice president of the First Hospital of China Medical University for his achievements.

According to its archived web pages,330 the Centre in 2004 had two professors, two associate professors, four doctorates, seven doctoral students, and two master’s students. In total, it had sixteen people with graduate degrees, with over half of them having studied or received training overseas. The Centre was the only hospital in China at the time capable of simultaneously conducting multiple organ transplants, including kidney, liver, combined pancreas-kidney, and combined liver-kidney transplants. The hospital claims to have performed more than 1,000 kidney and liver transplants as of April 2016,331 giving an average of 45 per year, or less than one per week. This number is derisory, considering the Centre’s staff complement and capacity.

Organ Graft Procurement and Human Experimentation

Between 2003 and 2008, Wang Lijun was the Police Commissioner of Jinzhou City in Liaoning Province. He established an “On-Site Psychology Research Centre” with the main purpose of experimenting with organ transplantation from living donors. Its collaborative partners included seven foreign universities and seventeen domestic universities and hospitals. Chinese Medical University and the People’s Liberation Army No. 205 Hospital in Jinzhou were among them.332

On September 19, 2006, at the award ceremony of China Guanghua Science and Technology Foundation’s Innovation Special Contribution Award, Secretary-General Ren Jinyang of the foundation said in his presentation:333 “Professor Wang Lijun and the research centre has conducted basic research and clinical trials on the difficult issue of organs that cannot easily be transplanted after lethal injection. Through animal testing, in vitro experiments and clinical application, they have developed a brand new formula for a preservative solution. After injecting the solution into the liver and kidney in vivo or in vitro, the organs can be used for transplants.” Wang Lijun also commented while receiving the award, “Our technological achievement is the result of several thousand on-site intensive trials and is through efforts of many people…”334

Photo: People’s Liberation Army No. 205 Hospital

 

The People’s Liberation Army 205 Hospital in Jinzhou is the largest organ transplant centre in western Liaoning Province, though it has not been approved to perform transplants by the Ministry of Health. On May 23, 2006, Western Liaoning Business Daily published a report stating that Chen Rongshan, the director of its urology department, had completed 568 kidney transplants. Patients from Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, and that patients from other places “flock there because of its reputation.”335 By December 2006, Chen had participated in at least 632 kidney transplants.336

On May 25, 2012, when an investigator of the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong called Chen, he stated that he had participated in Wang Lijun’s human experiments, and so did China Medical University and its affiliated hospitals.337

This is a partial transcript, translated, of the conversation between them:

Investigator: Wang Lijun had a post-drug-injection transplantation project. Have you collaborated with him on this?

Chen R.S.: Not only us, China Medical University, and its affiliated hospitals, were also involved in this.

Investigator: Some of the organs were from detained Falun Gong practitioners. Can you confirm this?

Chen R.S.: Those were all handled through the courts.

Director Liu Yongfeng of China Medical University’s Organ Transplant Institute stated that he participated in the research and development of organ preservation solutions and developed kidney preservation solutions that led the field in China. His account further stated that his technique of multiple abdominal organ procurement reduced damage to organs and has become the most widely used procurement technique in China. Liu led various scientific research projects, including four National Natural Science Foundation projects, and won a first prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award.338

Shanghai Renji Hospital (Affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University)

Photo: Shanghai Renji Hospital, East Campus (Pudong)339

 

Shanghai Jiaotong University has fourteen affiliated hospitals,340 including Renji Hospital. Other affiliated hospitals, such as Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, and Shanghai Xinhua Hospital are all organ transplant centres designated by the Ministry of Health. This university is former Chinese leader Jiang Zemin’s alma mater.

Shanghai Renji Hospital conducted its first liver transplant in 2001.341 After several years of development, its volume of liver transplants ranked first in Shanghai for eight consecutive years. It claims to have ranked first in China for liver transplants in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 and first in the world for pediatric liver transplants. Renji has become one of the top liver transplant centres in China.342

Busy Activity Shows Large Volume of Transplants Performed

According to an online posting, “Renji Hospital Liver Transplant Centre was officially established on September 20, 2004. Its main leader is Xia Qiang, who was recruited by the hospital. Though he had completed several hundred liver transplants successfully, Xia was still inexperienced within the transplant circle in China at the time.”343

In a report by Jiefang Daily on January 26, 2005, Xia said, “I’m obsessed with liver transplants. It’s like I’m addicted to it. I would feel uncomfortable if I don’t go to the ward to see patients for one day. I do at least two to five liver transplants a week. I’m not afraid of failures. I would carefully analyze and summarize and continue to do it the next day.” Exactly how many liver transplants had he done? Xia had lost count. He remembers only his record of six liver transplants in one day.344 Even now, a classical liver transplant takes four to six hours to complete; back in 2005, the operation time was even longer.

Exactly how many liver transplants had he done? Xiaqiang had lost count. He remembers only his record of 6 liver transplants in one day.

Figure 4.5: Snapshot of People’s Daily Online report in June 2006 (Jiefang Daily)

Xia said, “The management of my team is militarized. Every medical staff member must keep their cell phone turned on 24 hours a day, because liver transplants may require going out for graft procurement or preparing for surgery at any time. We doctors must be on standby at all times.”345 Among media reports, “busy” seems to be the most common word. In 2013, a Wenhui Daily article wrote, “Renji Hospital conducts liver transplants surgeries continuously, and doctors could not get out of the hospital all night long.”346

Volume of Transplants

In October 2004, Renji Hospital expanded the beds available for liver transplants less than ten days after the Centre was established. “The fourth day after I arrived at Renji Hospital, I performed the first liver transplant. The next week, we successfully completed 4 liver transplants.” As the hospital executives saw the strength of this young team, they immediately decided to expand from 13 beds to 23 beds for liver transplant during the October 1st long holiday.347

In less than three years, the China Organ Transplant website showed in June 2007 that Renji Hospital had 90 beds for liver transplants and can carry out 6 liver transplant operations simultaneously.348 By 2014, Renji Hospital’s Liver Transplant Surgery Department had 3 wards, 110 beds, and over 70 medical personnel. It has become a national key clinical discipline, a key discipline for development under the national “211 Project,” and a key clinical medical discipline under the Shanghai Health and Family Planning Commission.349

In 2007, the hospital website showed that it “completed close to 200 liver transplants per year.” In 2013, it stated that the number of annual liver transplants was “over 200.” If that figure were true, the 23 beds in 2004 would have been more than sufficient. Yet, its bed count was increased to 110.

Source: China Organ Transplantation Net / Renji Hospital Date: June 28, 2007 Title: The Liver Transplant Team of Shanghai Renji Organ Transplant Centre ... This centre has first class equipment and facilities. It has 90 beds, and hundred per cent particle free level laminar (unidirectional) air flow operating rooms can carry out 6 liver transplant operations simultaneously ...

Figure 4.6: Snapshot of June 2007 China Organ Transplantation Webpage

 

In Shanghai, where hospital beds were in short supply, Renji Hospital innovated many methods to increase their utilization rate, including the well-known “daytime surgery centre,” where patients need to stay for only 24 to 48 hours.350 A variety of factors affect individual patients’ hospitalization times. The shortest hospitalization times for liver transplants are listed at or below two weeks, including 9 days at Fudan University351 and 12 days at Shandong Provincial Hospital Organ Transplant Center. 352

Even assuming a 30-day hospitalization time and a 100% utilization rate, 90 beds would allow 1,080 transplants per year, and 110 beds would allow 1,320 transplants per year. If Renji Hospital had also achieved a three-week hospitalization time and if we deduct a small number of beds used for other purposes, its annual liver transplant quantity would have reached over 1,500.

Renji was one of the first hospitals in Shanghai to conduct kidney transplants.353 Its urology department established a new wing and renal transplant ward in Pudong in November 1999 and later expanded to 70 beds. Its new medical team and distribution system allowed its number of surgeries to increase by 300%.354 The medium-sized department performs over 5,000 surgeries per year, with over 60% being large and extra-large operations. The average hospitalization time is five days.355 These data points suggest that the hospital performs as many kidney transplants as liver transplants.

Obtaining Organs Directly from Military Sources

Xia Qiang said, “If there is a sufficient supply of livers, we will not start liver transplants from living donors [referring to patients’ relatives], since, after all, it requires healthy donors to bear the risk of surgery.”356 According to a Wenhui Daily report, among the 1,500 surgeries completed at the hospital between 2004 and 2013, just over 300 were from living relative donors. The hospitals realistic capacity is over 1,000 transplants per year and the number of relative donors (33 per year on average) represent a fraction of its total volume.

A page on Good Doctors Online, a widely used medical directory for Chinese doctors, states, “In 2013, with the strong support of hospital officials, it [the hospital] set up the first Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) in Shanghai. By June 2014, it has already obtained 22 organ donations, including from 14 adults and 8 children, providing 17 livers and 34 kidneys, accounting for two-thirds of all organ donations in the Shanghai area.”357 If we consider only the officially published volume of transplants, the sources of more than 1,100 transplants among the 1,500 are unexplained.

In an investigative report broadcast by New Tang Dynasty (NTD) TV on February 7, 2015, the head nurse on duty at the liver transplant department of Renji Hospital acknowledged that the procurement of living organs was done through military sources.358

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated with Nanjing University Medical School

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital was originally established as a Christian hospital in 1892. It now has about 3,000 beds, more than 400 chief physicians and associate chief physicians, more than 220 full and associate professors, over 40 doctoral advisors, and over 180 master’s advisors. It employs 40 experts who receive special allowances from the State Council. The hospital’s liver transplantation capability is claimed in a leading position in China. 359

In 1995, its hepatobiliary department successfully conducted China’s first piggyback liver transplant, which was considered an advanced operation at the time. In 2001, it performed the first combined liver-kidney transplant in Jiangsu Province. The department currently has 180 beds. Its subordinate departments include transplantation, liver surgery, and biliary-pancreatic surgery. This department is a national key discipline and serves as the Jiangsu Province Hepatobiliary Clinical Medical Centre. 360

The department’s academic leader, Ding Yitao, now serves as director of the organ transplant centre, honorary president of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (he was president between 1996 and 2014), and vice president of Nanjing University Medical School. He has received research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation, National 863 Program, and Chinese Academy of Sciences special projects. He has published more than 500 papers and books, including around 200 papers as the primary author. He has received 16 awards at the national and provincial levels. He also received advanced training at the Australian National Liver Transplantation Unit.

In addition, the hospital’s urologic surgery department is approved by the Ministry of Health to perform kidney transplants. It is a Jiangsu provincial medical and clinical key specialist department. The department is assigned 120 beds and has 3 wards.361

The hospital’s gigantic, modern General Medical Building was put into use on December 15, 2012. The building is equipped with amenities akin to that of a five-star hotel, including a grand piano worth 7 million RMB. The building can accommodate 15,000 outpatients per day and has close to 3,000 beds. The building has won a World Architecture News award and China’s top architecture award, the Lu Ban Award.

Photos: Hospital lobby and inpatient ward lobby

 

Photos: Rooftop helipad

Summaries

1
Peking Union Medical College Hospital
  • City, Province: Beijing
    • National-Level Civilian
    • Capacity: 2,000 beds
  • Certified transplant types:
    • liver
    • kidney
  • Types of transplants actually conducted:
    • liver
    • kidney
  • Hepatobiliary Surgery:
    • 10 transplant experts
  • Urological Surgery:
    • 80 beds
    • 15 transplant experts
  • Facts of Interest:
    • Huang Jiefu says he did 500 liver transplants in 2012.

Thousands of people line up overnight to register for an appointment slot at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, which treats both cadres and common citizens–a rarity among top-ranked hospitals in China.

The hospital was built in 1921 by the Rockefeller Foundation in an effort to “build the best medical centre in Asia.” It is renowned both domestically and internationally. It was the earliest medical facility to provide service to foreign guests in China, with special wards for foreign dignitaries and a clinic for senior cadres. The hospital ranked first on the list of China’s Best Hospitals Honor Roll for six consecutive years, from 2010 to 2015, released by The Institute of Hospital Administration of Fudan University.362

It has more than 4,000 employees, including 5 academicians, 20 national key disciplines, 29 national key clinical specialties, 16 PhD programs, 29 master’s degree programs, 6 national bases for continuing medical education, 18 training bases for residents with secondary disciplines, 15 training bases for residency specialists with third-level disciplines. The hospital has more than 2,000 inpatient beds.

It successfully performed China’s first renal transplant operation in 1973 and has a long history of and strength in performing liver transplants.363

Its liver transplant division has a strong team of doctors trained overseas. It has two doctoral advisors, three master’s advisors, five professors or associate professors, and five attending surgeons/physicians. All of these staff members hold PhDs. It also recruits a large number of training surgeons/physicians every year, and is responsible for teaching eight-year medical students and graduate students for Peking Union Medical College.364

The current director of hepatobiliary surgery is Huang Jiefu, former Deputy Minister of Health. He is a promoter of the second surge of liver transplantation in China. He served as director of the China Organ Transplant Board, vice president of the Chinese Medical Association, and a visiting professor of Harvard University, Stanford University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was the chief editor of 11 surgery monographs and participated in the editing of 5 surgery monographs.

The first list of organ transplant surgeons in Beijing contains names of doctors in the field of liver transplantation, such as Mao Yilei, Sang Xinting, Zhong Shouxian, and other well-known liver transplant doctors at Union Hospital.365

PhD advisor Zhong Shouxian lead the first liver transplant surgery at Union Hospital. He graduated from the Kharkov Medical Institute in the former Soviet Union and subsequently studied at Massachusetts General Hospital of Harvard University and the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He also served as vice chairman of the National Pancreatic Surgery Group, and editor and consultant of more than ten professional journals, such as Chinese Journal of General Surgery and National Medical Journal of China. 366

Mao Yilei was named one of the best ten professors of surgery at Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 2014. He completed a residency training program at Modbury Hospital in Australia in 1990. In 1997, he graduated from a PhD program in surgery at Lund University in Sweden, under the tutelage of Stig Bengmark, an academician of the European Academy of Sciences and President of the World Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association. He conducted research as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University in the United States and completed his clinical training with the Division of Surgical Oncology at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).367

Sung Xinting, the current deputy director of the liver surgery department and master’s degree advisor, studied at the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden as a visiting scholar from 1993 to 1995.

In June 2006, the liver surgery department received funding of one million U.S. dollars from the China Medical Board in New York (CMB). This fund has been used to assist in the establishment of transplant standard and registration systems, domestic laws and regulations regarding transplantation in China, strengthening professional training, and expanding liver transplant-related research achievements. This project has the Peking Union Medical College Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences as the main body, in cooperation with the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Tianjin First Centre Hospital. Professor Huang Jiefu, former Vice Minister of Health, served as the project director. The department is also responsible for a number of National Natural Science Foundation projects and cooperates with the United States, Canada and other countries for research-related projects.368

Its official website has removed all its liver transplant quantity figures and shows there are only 28 beds. However, in 2013, Guangzhou Daily reported that Huang Jiefu said, “I did 500 liver transplants last year.”369 These beds cannot accommodate even Huang Jiefu’s liver transplant recipients (or those performed by the team he oversaw).

Its urological surgery department started kidney transplants earliest, and has advanced technology and significant effect. It ranks second in a composite score in the Beijing area. In the field of kidney transplantation, it is on an internationally advanced and domestically leading level.370

There are currently 67 staff members and 80 beds in the urological surgery department. It has 37 doctors and 26 nurses, including 9 professors, 6 associate professor, and 11 attending surgeons / physicians, among whom are 3 doctoral advisors and 8 master’s advisors. It has 12 postdoctoral fellows or doctorates, and more than 10 people who have gone to Europe and other developed countries for further study. Each year, these PhD and master’s degree programs recruit 6 to 8 students and 12 in-service graduate students.

The hospital’s website shows that since the first kidney transplants were carried out in the 1970s, the hospital has completed nearly 1,000 kidney transplants. However, this number has not been updated in years.

2
China-Japan Friendship Hospital
  • National-Level Civilian
  • City, Province: Beijing
  • Capacity: 1,600 beds
  • Certified transplant types:
    • liver
    • lung
  • Types of transplants actually conducted:
    • kidney
    • lung
    • liver
  • Thoracic Surgery
    • 57 beds (6 ICU)

This hospital was established collaboratively by the Chinese and Japanese governments and receives subsidies from the Japanese government. It provides medical care for foreigners from a number of countries and regions, and for leaders in the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. In 2001, it was listed as the base hospital for medical care of leaders in the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. It has 1,600 beds, over 500 staff with associate senior professional titles or above, and over 1,000 staff with master’s degrees or above.371 It ranked 43rd among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015.372

The hospital’s urologic surgery department operates a kidney transplant centre. “Since it began to perform kidney transplants in 1986, it has accumulated rich clinical experience, standardized perioperative management practices, a high long-term survival rate, and low medical costs. It has achieved a leading position nationally and received good reviews from domestic and international patients.” In 2011, the department had 7 chief physicians (including 3 master’s advisors), 4 associate chief physicians, 3 attending physicians, and 2 residents. It serves as a training base for urology specialists in Beijing.373

Liu Naibo, director of the urologic surgery department, has rich experience in kidney transplant surgery and postoperative complications. He was one of the earliest in China to begin work on laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy and kidney transplantation. He has led multiple national and hospital-level research programs. In 1989, he studied at Kyushu University in Japan.374

Jiang Yongjin, former director of the urologic surgery department, served as a health expert for senior cadres in 2002. He is a member of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee. He studied kidney transplantation at Addenbrooke’s Hospital in England for two years. Jiang has published 40 articles in domestic and international journals. He has won one National Science and Technology Research Achievement Award and enjoys special government allowances.375

The hospital has a nationally ranked thoracic surgery department, which performed the first two lung transplants in China in the 1970s. It is now mature in conducting single lung, double lung, and lobar lung transplants, and has a relatively large impact domestically. The department has first-class equipment and has a large group of highly skilled thoracic surgery specialists, most of whom have medical PhDs and master’s degrees. All of its physicians have research or study experience overseas. Some of its professors serve as visiting professors at overseas institutions and have long-term academic exchanges. The department has named honorary professors from the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, and other countries. The department has 5 professors, 4 associate professors, and 7 attending physicians and residents. It has 57 beds, including 6 dedicated ICU beds.376 377

Its liver transplant recognition is nearing the international level.378 In 1995, the hospital achieved preliminary success with its first liver transplant. It bills itself as “[having] a team with strong capabilities in liver transplantation and strength in integration.” It “welcomes late-stage and end-stage liver disease patients who need liver transplants to come receive their surgeries; we would give them preferential treatment.”379

Funded by the Ministry of Education, it formed a panel to study liver transplantation in Melbourne and Sydney in 1995, followed by Pittsburgh in the U.S. in 1996. This was the first hospital whose liver transplantation training of this kind was funded by the Ministry of Education.

3
Fuwai Cardiovascular Disease Hospital affiliated with Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
  • National-Level Civilian
  • City, Province: Beijing
  • Heart Transplants
    • most in the country
  • Capacity
    • 2 operating rooms
    • 12 regular beds
    • 6 ICU beds
  • Costs
    • Heart: 250,000 RMB

This is the largest hospital for cardiovascular disease treatment, research, and education in China. It began its clinical practice in heart and lung transplantation in 1994. It began performing heart transplants as a routine procedure in 2004 with a specialized team, and has performed the most heart transplants in the country. It is also one of the largest heart transplant centres in the world.380

The hospital’s website states that it has refined a set of conventions for heart transplantation. Most patients successfully recover after surgery, can begin walking after 2~3 days, and can be discharged after 2~3 weeks.381

Its website also publicly lists the costs of a heart transplant. Based on current figures, the perioperative cost for each patient average around 250,000 RMB. Fees for postoperative immunosuppressants average 3,000~5,000 RMB per month.382

The transplant centre has strong capabilities: 383

The hospital president Hu Shengshou is a PhD advisor, a chief scientist under the National 973 Program, and one of the hospital’s three primary lead surgeons in heart transplantation.

Song Yunhu, chief surgeon in charge of the heart transplant centre, is also one of the hospital’s three main lead surgeons in heart transplantation. He studied cardiac surgery at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, Australia in 1998. He also received training at various heart centres in the United States, Canada, Germany, and other countries.

Wang Wei is a chief surgeon of the transplant centre, a PhD advisor, and one of the hospital’s three main lead surgeons in heart transplantation. He is currently involved in key heart transplant research projects under the Ministry of Science and Technology’s “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” Support Program.

Huang Jie, chief of the heart transplant ward and chief physician, is responsible for selection, targeted

Pre-operative treatment, and postoperative follow-up and management of heart transplant patients. She studied heart and lung transplantation at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, Australia in 2006.

Its official website says the transplant centre has only 2 dedicated transplantation operating rooms, 6 postoperative ICU beds, 12 regular beds, a team of 3 renowned cardiac surgical specialists, 2 trained full-time transplant doctors, relatively dedicated ICU nurses, and 15 ward nurses.384

Based on its two to three-week hospitalization period, even if the figures of 12 beds and 6 ICU beds were not underreported, the centre can accommodate about 300-450 heart transplants per year. Thus, even one operating room would have been more than enough, and a second one would not be needed.

However, Song’s profile indicates that the Fuwai Cardiovascular Hospital Heart Transplant Centre completed 440 heart transplants between June 2004 and July 2014, and that it performed 60 in 2010, 52 in 2011, 46 in 2012, 65 in 2013,385 and 81 in 2014.386

If these numbers are true, then five beds, one operating room, and one doctor would have been more than enough.

We have observed that the main heart transplant centres in China all have records of performing multiple transplants in one day. For example, two doctors at Xi’an Jiaotong University each has a record of performing 3 heart transplants in one day. Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University has a record of carrying out 4 transplants in one day. Fuwai Hospital’s online figure implying one heart transplant every 4 to 5 days does not match its claim of having “performed the most heart transplants in the country.”

4
Peking University First Hospital
National level renal transplant centre

Urologic Surgery Research Institute

In 2008, Peking University First Hospital became the base for medical care of officials in the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. The hospital pioneered a number of professional disciplines in China, such as kidney transplantation.387

Its Institute of Urologic Surgery is the both the birthplace and leader of urology in China, and is known to have made the majority of “firsts” in China’s field of urology. For example, Wu Jieping’s team carried out China’s first renal transplant in 1960.388

It has developed into a urologic surgery centre that is both well-known internationally and at leading level domestically, with two generations of Academicians, including Wu Jieping and Guo Yinglu. As of December 2009, it had 121 medical staff, including 2 academicians, 7 doctoral advisors, 5 master’s advisors, 26 professionals with senior titles, and 33 with intermediate titles.

A new hospital ward building was commissioned in 2002. The urologic surgery centre has expanded to 105 beds.

In October 10, 2001, its surgical liver transplant group worked with other hospitals affiliated with Peking University to establish the largest organ transplant centre in China. The number of liver transplants completed by the centre has reached an advanced level domestically.389

The centre has established long-term academic relationships with the world’s leading liver transplant centres in the U.S., including the Southwestern University Hospital, University of Pittsburgh (UPMC) Hospital, University of Minnesota Hospital, University of Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan, etc. Its liver transplant doctors hold master’s and PhD degrees in medicine. Many have completed further study in internationally renowned transplant centres in the U.S., Germany, Denmark, Hong Kong, and other regions.

Professor Wan Yuanlian, director of liver transplantation centre, has studied liver transplantation in the United States. He completed the first liver transplant at Peking University.

The vice president of the hospital and deputy director of the liver transplant centre, Professor Liu Yucun, has studied liver transplantation in Denmark and participated in Peking University’s first liver transplant.

Professor Zhao Jianxun, deputy director of the transplant centre has studied hepatobiliary surgical techniques in Japan and participated in Peking University’s first liver transplant.

Professional transplant team leader and associate professor Wu Wunhan has worked in Pittsburgh and Hong Kong under the guidance of internationally renowned organ transplant experts Professor John Fung and Professor Fan Shangda (ST Fan). He systematically studied liver, pancreas, and small intestine transplantation. In particular, he became skilled in a variety of surgical techniques in liver transplantation. In 2009,the cost of a liver transplant at this centre was around 160,000-200,000 RMB at that time, including fees for surgery, monitoring, and pharmaceutical and examination fees for around three weeks after the operation.

5
Peking University People’s Hospital
National level liver, renal, and small intestine transplant centre

The Peking University Organ Transplant Centre was founded on October 10, 2001. It incorporated related departments from five medical institutions, including Peking University First Hospital, Peking University People’s Hospital, and Peking University Third Hospital. The centre specializes in transplantation of liver, kidney, pancreas, heart, cornea, bone marrow, and other organs. It claims to be the largest and most academically advanced in China, with its liver transplant capabilities in a leading position in the Beijing region. 390

In September 2013, Zhu Jiye, director of the Peking University Organ Transplant Institute and director of the hepatobiliary surgery department at Peking University People’s Hospital, told China Economic Weekly, “Our hospital conducted 4,000 liver and renal transplant operations within a particular year, and all of the organs were from prisoners sentenced to death.” 391

The hospital’s Hepatobiliary Surgery website claims that the quantity and quality of its liver transplants rank first among medical units in the northern region. It also ranks first in the success rate of liver transplants in Beijing.392

However, its current website shows that it has completed just over 600 total liver transplants since 2000, when the liver transplant program was started under the leadership of Professor Zhu Jiye and Lin Xixing, with an annual average of fewer than 40 cases. But according to its renal transplant website as of July 2014, the centre has conducted nearly 510 kidney transplants since April 1991.393 There is a large discrepancy between the total of 1,100 liver and kidney transplants in the past decade and the above-mentioned annual figures stated by Zhu Jiye. It also does not match its own status of “ranking first in quantity among medical units in the northern region.”

Its website also claims that this department has held a position of renown in the field of hepatobiliary surgery for a number of years. It belongs to the national 211 Project under the Ministry of Education and is a key specialist discipline of the Ministry of Health, a key discipline in Beijing, the National Board of Education doctoral discipline, Beijing key laboratory, Peking University Institute of Organ Transplantation, and Liver Cancer Research Centre of Peking University.

The department has 8 professors, 6 associate professors, 4 attending physicians, and 1 resident. It includes two doctoral advisors and 5 master’s advisors. It has undertaken a number of Ministry of Health professional programs, the national research projects of 863, 973 and 985 Programs, the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China during the 9th to 12th Five-Year Plan, National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the National Natural Science Foundation, etc.

The department has a number of experts who participate in national organ transplant legislation. Its director Zhu Jiye represented China several times in the World Health Organization’s Organ Transplantation conferences. The department has also organized a number of international and national academic transplant conferences. It has held four national workshops on liver transplantation and trained a large number of liver transplant specialists across the country.

The Peking University Organ Transplant Centre has advanced liver and kidney transplantation at the Health Science Centre’s three general hospitals. As a result, its liver transplantation has remained in a leading position in the Beijing area.

To date, the Centre has received more than 1.5 million RMB in funding from the 973 Program, the National Natural Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education Doctoral Station Foundation, and other national and provincial-level science and technology funds. These hospitals have published a batch of high-caliber clinical basic research papers domestically and internationally, and they rank among the top transplant centres in China.394

6
Peking University Third Hospital
National level liver, renal, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital ranked 14th among the top 100 hospitals in China in 2015.395 It averages 5,900 outpatients per day and had been the top hospital in Beijing for 8 consecutive years (1998-2005).396 It claims that its organ transplant capabilities have led the country continuously.397

The hospital began conducting liver transplant research in the 1970s. Several of its liver transplant team members have studied abroad. It officially launched clinical liver transplantation in May 2000 and subsequently began performing kidney and combined kidney-pancreas transplants. Organ transplantation has become a routine operation at this hospital. Under the support of academician Han Qide, director of the Peking University Health Science Centre and vice chairman of the National People’s Congress, its organ transplant centre was formally established in October 2001.398

Liver Transplantation

In December 2005, its liver transplant centre moved to the new surgical building with 470 beds, enabling greater development opportunities. 399 400 Liver transplantation has become routine surgery for treating end-stage liver diseases at the hospital. The liver transplant centre has become an important part of the hospital; its effectiveness and number of liver transplants lead the country.401

Team members:

· 12 liver surgeons, including 2 professors, 2 associate professors

· 6 attending physicians, including 5 with doctorate degrees and 4 with master’s degrees

· 6 transplantation anesthesiologists, including 2 with advanced titles and 4 with intermediate titles

· 4 transplant ICU doctors, including 2 with advanced titles and 2 with intermediate titles

· 2 ultrasonography doctors

· 2 radiological intervention doctors

The team also includes pathologists, internists, clinical laboratory physicians, and a coordinator responsible for communications between the doctors and patients.402 403

 

Professor Zhang Tonglin, director of the general surgery department and a PhD advisor,404 405 performed more than 200 liver transplants between 1999 and 2006. He studied organ transplantation at Ochsner Foundation Hospital. After returning to China, he conducted clinical transplantation research. By 2006, he had finished multiple projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and the Ministry of Education “211” Engineering Program. He had published more than 60 articles and mentored 8 master’s’ and 9 doctoral graduates.406 His profile on the hospital’s website has not been updated since 2006.

Kidney Transplantation

The hospital performed its first successful kidney transplant in 1998.407 In 2001, its number of kidney transplants ranked third in Beijing, making it one of the largest kidney transplant centres in China. Its transplant volume has increased year over year. In 2004, its kidney transplant volume ranked first in Beijing.408 Its kidney transplantation has a “high success rate and standardized postoperative management” and has attracted patients from all over China.409

Transplant Volume

Its transplant centre’s website stated that, in 2001, it exceeded 100 kidney transplants per year and ranked third in Beijing.410 In 2004, it performed 185 kidney transplants, ranking first in Beijing and citing “widespread organ donor sources.”411 As of December 2009, it had reached a total of more than 1,200 kidney transplants.412 Based on the Third Hospital’s scale and qualifications, it should be fairly close to Peking University People’s Hospital (the two ranked 14th and 9th, respectively, in the top 100 hospitals in China in 2015).

According to Zhu Jiye, director of the Peking University People’s Hospital’s organ transplant centre, the People’s Hospital had performed 4,000 kidney transplants that year. The Third Hospital, with its “widespread organ donor sources,” most likely performed well over its claimed 100 kidney transplants per year (a figure for which one surgeon would more than suffice).

Ma Lulin, director of its urologic surgery department, standing member of the Chinese Medical Association Urologic Surgery Subcommittee, and leader of its Kidney Transplantation Study Group, has worked in kidney transplantation for a long time. Ma has completed over 1,200 kidney transplants and dozens of combined pancreas-duodenum-kidney transplants.413

Professor Ma Lulin and associate chief physician Hou Xiaofei studied at the world’s earliest and most prolific hospital for pancreas transplants—University of Minnesota in the United States. They began performing combined pancreas-kidney transplants in 2001. The hospital is among those with the highest quantity and best results of such transplants domestically.414 415

The department has 8 chief physicians/professors (including one PhD advisor), 8 associate chief physicians/associate professors, and 5 attending physicians.416

Between 2002 and 2004, the department conducted three national-level organ transplant training classes (including kidney, pancreatic, liver, and other types of transplants) and trained a large number of clinical transplant professionals.417

7
Beijing Chaoyang Hospital (affiliated with Capital Medical University)
National level liver, renal, lung, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital operates the Beijing Organ Transplant Centre and performs the largest variety of transplants in China. It claims to be the only one that can carry out liver, heart, kidney, lung, small intestine, pancreas and other large organ transplants. It has always ranked at the forefront nationally in the area of kidney, pancreas-kidney, islet cell, and related kidney transplantation.418

The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department claims that its liver transplantation is leading in the country. It also contains the Beijing Organ Transplant Centre’s liver transplant division. The department performed the first liver transplant in the Beijing area in July in 1999. It can carry out almost all types of liver transplant procedures. Its quantity, success rate, and patient survival rate are at a leading level domestically.419

However, its website states, “To date, this department has completed more than 500 liver transplants.” This volume, less than 30 cases per year on average, amounts to less than a fraction of that of Tianjin Oriental Transplant Centre; it is likely that the number is a major discount on the actual volume of transplant activity. Its kidney transplant discipline was founded in the early 1990s, and is one of the largest renal transplant centres in China. It has a high reputation in the Beijing area as well as across the entire country. The renal transplant team carries out a comprehensive laboratory evaluation of transplant-related organ acquisition, transplant surgery, perioperative support, and postoperative follow-ups, etc.420

Guan Delin is an organ transplant specialist. According to an advertisement published in Beijing Business Today on Sept. 7, 2005, Guan had experience in “over 2,700 kidney transplants, over 40 kidney transplants from relative donors, and close to 20 combined kidney-pancreas transplants.” Yet, in May 2006, an introduction was posted on Chaoyang Hospital’s website stating that Guan joined this hospital after having personally completed over 1,000 kidney transplants.421 The 2006 figure was 1,700 lower than that published in the previous year.

It was reported that this hospital conducted 21 transplant surgeries within one day around 2000-2001.422

Yet, the hospital’s website states that it has performed more than 3,000 kidney transplants in total, purportedly one of the highest among transplant institutions in China.423 This figure translates to less than 200 per year, far below its capacity and national ranking as a leading kidney transplant centre, and is therefore likely falsified.

9
Beijing YouAn Hospital (affiliated with Capital Medical University)
National level liver transplant centre

This is the largest hospital specializing in clinical hepatobiliary disease in China. Its liver transplant centre was established in 2003 and serves as a PhD student training base in surgery for Capital Medical University. The centre jointly founded the Sino-American Liver Transplantation Centre with the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute. It also established collaborative relationships with a dozen well-known liver transplant centres in China.424

The centre has 86 medical staff, including 2 doctoral advisors, 4 master’s advisors, 14 PhDs, and 14 with master’s degrees. Liver transplantation is its most significant specialty. It has become the largest liver transplant centre in Beijing and leads in the country in its annual liver transplant volume and survival rate.425

In June 2014, Zang Yunjin, president of the Armed Police General Hospital, joined the medical team at YouAn Hospital. YouAn Hospital stated that it would build a first-class liver transplant centre in Beijing with the help of Zang Yunjin. By then, Zang already conducted 1,570 kidney transplants and 22 kidney-liver transplants.426

Lu Shichun, former director of the hospital’s liver transplant centre and a doctoral advisor, claimed to have led over 700 liver transplants.427 In 1995, he received a PhD in abdominal surgery and organ transplantation from the University of Freiburg in Germany. In 2004, he moved from West China Hospital of Sichuan University to YouAn Hospital and became the director of its hepatobiliary surgery department, liver transplant centre, and the China-U.S. Cooperative Liver Transplant Centre. He is currently the director of the hepatobiliary surgery department under the People’s Liberation Army No. 301 General Hospital’s clinical surgery division.

He stated in a media interview in 2012 the fee for liver transplants differs among transplant units and averages around 400,000 to 500,000 RMB. Patients who recover relatively quickly can be discharged in two weeks; those who develop complications or experience otherwise unsuccessful recoveries may need to stay longer.428

President Li Ning is a leader of the liver transplant discipline in the Beijing area. China News reported in 2010 that he has led over 500 liver transplants over the past 10 years.429 430 However, at the time this report was written, the hospital’s website claimed that he has led 200 liver transplants,431 300 fewer than the 2010 figure.

10
Beijing Anzhen Hospital
National level heart and lung transplant centre

Anzhen Hospital, one of China’s largest cardiac surgery centres, employs a number of domestically and internationally renowned heart surgeons. The hospital was among the first batch approved by the Ministry of Health to carry out heart and lung transplants.432

This hospital has over 4,000 employees, including 600 personnel with senior professional titles and over 900 with intermediate titles. The hospital has 1,500 beds, including 211 intensive care beds. It has 31 operating rooms equipped with one hundred, one thousand, and ten-thousand-level laminar flow clean air technology.

Anzhen Hospital leads the cardiovascular field in China and is one of the country’s largest cardiac surgery centres.433 It employs a number of domestically and internationally renowned heart surgeons. It has carried out heart, lung, and combined heart-lung transplants for many years, with the number of transplants increasing year on year.

The Thoracic Surgery Department successfully conducted the first single-lung transplant in 1995 and the first double-lung transplant in 1998. It grew tremendously after 2000, increasing the number of lung transplants performed and the postoperative survival rate.434

Qu Songlei,435 head of the Thoracic Surgery Department, studied thoracic surgery and lung transplantation in the United States in 1999 and 2000. With rich experience from performing clinical work in the subject for more than 20 years, he can perform many complex procedures, including lung transplants. He has published a number of academic papers and participated in the writing and editing of multiple monographs and textbooks. He has won first prize of the Beijing Science and Technology Progress Award.

The Cardiac Surgery Department includes the Beijing Heart Transplant Centre and specializes in treating severe valvular heart disease and end-stage heart disease. It has 50 beds and performs 1,000 surgeries per year. The department is among the top in the country in the heart transplant field, including its development of new surgical procedures, research programs, and number of clinical cases. It also holds the record in northern China for the longest patient survival time. In 1992, the department performed China’s second heart transplant (the first took place in Shanghai in 1978). Fourteen years later, it started a nationwide period of development in heart transplantation. The department performed the world’s first four combined heart, bone marrow, and stem cell transplants as an innovation in the knowledge and techniques of improving immune tolerance. Transplant recipients experienced less rejection of the donor heart while maintaining resistance against viruses and bacteria. Thus, lesser quantities of immunological drugs were needed. This result can potentially be extended to the fields of lung and other actual organ transplants.436

Xu Meng is the founder of the Beijing Heart Transplant and Valvular Surgery Treatment Centre, vice director of the Heart Surgery Department, and a PhD advisor. He studied as a senior visiting scholar at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and is a member of the Chinese Medical Association’s Beijing Organ Transplant Society. One of his specialties is in heart transplants for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. He has independently completed nearly 10,000 surgeries, with over 800 operations every year. He has published more than 100 papers in SCI and China’s core medical journals. He is in charge of more than 10 research projects at or above the provincial and ministerial levels. Meanwhile, he is involved in multiple projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan.437

47
Shanghai General Hospital
National level liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

Built in 1864, this hospital is one of the first comprehensive hospitals of Western medicine in China. It has 2,350 beds, 62 doctoral advisors, and 122 master’s advisors. There are 25 doctorate programs, 25 postdoctoral fellow research stations, and 36 master’s programs.438

The hospital conducts the most variety of organ transplants in Shanghai, spanning 12 categories. Its quantity of transplantations performed ranks first in Shanghai. In August 2001, the Shanghai Clinical Centre for Organ Transplantation was established at the hospital. Built upon the “Shanghai Organ Transplantation Research Centre” and the “Shanghai Tissue Typing Centre,” the Centre is based on kidney transplants.439

Kidney transplantation traditionally has been a strength of the Urologic Surgery Department and a core component of the Shanghai Organ Transplantation Centre (at Shanghai General Hospital). Its website claimed it has performed a total of more than 2,200 kidney transplants. Its comprehensive capabilities are leading domestically and have reached an advanced level internationally.440

In 2001, the Shanghai General Hospital Liver Transplant Centre became part of the first batch of clinical medical centres built in Shanghai. With the support of higher departments, its clinical scale, quantity, quality, research, hardware, software, and overall capabilities in liver transplantation grew rapidly. In 2001, it performed Shanghai’s first combined liver-kidney transplant. It performs the most combined liver-kidney transplants in China. In 2006, it helped other units in Shanghai perform re-transplants; the hospitalization time for re-transplants averaged 25 days. It performs the most liver transplants among hospitals in Shanghai.441

The liver transplant centre has separate patient ward with a total of 58 beds. The liver transplant medical team currently has 14 surgeons and physicians, 13 of whom hold doctoral degrees. In addition, it has trained and dispatched more than 10 PhD and master’s students to other centres.

The hospital emphasizes the spread of its work in liver transplantation for use at other medical institutions. It helped drive the development of liver, combined liver-kidney, and combined pancreas-kidney transplants at sister institutions (university-affiliated and provincial hospitals) in eleven provinces and two cities.

Peng Zhihai, director of the Shanghai Organ Transplantation Centre, director of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Organ Research Institute, and vice president of Shanghai General Hospital, serves on the Standing Committee of the Chinese Medical Association’s Organ Transplantation Society. He has completed more than 800 liver and multi-organ transplants. He has accomplished one “first in China” and four “first in Shanghai” advancements in the area of liver transplantation methods. The centre’s quality and effectiveness of transplantation have taken a leading position in the country.

He has led programs under the National Eleventh Five-Year Plan’s Science and Technology Support Program, key projects under the 863 Program, projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and the Shanghai Science Committee’s “Innovation Action Plan,” as well as multiple other national and Shanghai city-level programs. In 2002, he led the General Surgery Department to receive 7 projects under the National Natural Science Fund. He has been granted four patents.442

Tan Jianming, director of the Shanghai Research Centre for Organ Transplantation, director of the Nanjing Military Research Institute of Organ Transplantation, and simultaneously vice president of Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, was an adjunct director of the Shanghai Clinical Centre for Organ Transplantation for six years, starting in 2001. He has led more than 4,200 kidney transplants as of 2014.443

Tan has undertaken more than ten key national, ministerial, provincial, and military projects. He has edited or participated in the editing of 7 monographs and published 56 papers in domestic and international core journals as the first author. As principal researcher, he has won one second prize of the National Science and

Technology Progress Award, one first prize and 6 third prizes of the People’s Liberation Army Science and Technology Progress Award, and the People’s Liberation Army “Ninth Five-Year Plan” Major Science and Technology Achievement Award.444

Below are transcript excerpts of a phone call between a WOIPFG investigator and the Shanghai General Hospital Liver Transplant Centre, published in September 2013:445

Doctor Dai: Let me tell you, it should be OK to have liver transplant in your case.

Investigator: I just want to know how long we have to wait.

Doctor Dai: We have supplies every day. Today for example, we are performing transplant surgery.

Investigator: Well, I mean not just a fresh one. We need one from live human body…

Doctor Dai: Sure, the organs we use are all from live persons. The donors are all alive.

Investigator: What?

Doctor Dai: They are all organs from live persons! Ours are the best.

……

Investigator: All these organs, they must come from healthy persons. We need the healthy one.

Doctor Dai: I’ll make sure that you’re satisfied after you come.…

Investigator: I heard some come from those who practice qigong. They are very healthy.

Doctor Dai: Yes, we have this type, but I cannot explain to you clearly over the phone.

Investigator: If you could find me one, I will come right away.

Doctor Dai: Of course. Just come over!

Investigator: Oh, you could. Then how do I find you? What’s your last name? I will look for you.

Doctor Dai: I’m Doctor Dai.

Investigator: Which Dai?

Doctor Dai: The ‘Dai’ as in ‘dai mao’ (=wear a hat).

29
The Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi
Regional level kidney transplant centre

This was formerly the Shanxi Provincial Hospital of Occupational Diseases. Its Kidney Transplant and Dialysis Centre was founded in October 1997446 and has since become the largest, best-equipped, and most technologically advanced transplant centre in the province. It ranked among the top 20 in the same discipline for five consecutive years. The centre has 90 beds, plus 21 beds in its intensive care unit and claims it has performed total of 1,300 kidney transplants. 447

The founder of the centre Wu Xiaotong, often spends 12 hours a day performing transplant surgeries, one after another, and filled several gaps in the field of kidney transplantation in Shanxi Province. Wu helped formulate the Chinese Cardiac Death Organ Donation Guide. He is a standing committee member of the Chinese Medical Association’s Organ Transplant Society and chairman of the Shanxi Organ Transplantation Professional Committee. He is an editor of the Chinese Journal of Transplantation and the Organ Transplantation journal, has published dozens of articles, and manages multiple provincial and ministerial-level research projects.448

The centre’s chief surgeon Wang Zhenxing, associate chief surgeon Zhou Hua, Shi Genyu, attending surgeon Sun Yongkang, Chen Hua, Hao Xiaojun, and Yang Jun are all kidney transplant specialists with more than ten years of experience in the field. Zhou Hua has himself performed more than 500 kidney transplants.449

A paper published by deputy director Wang Zhenxing450 mentioned that the hospital performed 925 kidney transplants between 1992 and 2008.451 In another paper, he wrote that 1,263 kidney transplants were performed between 1992 and 2012.452 We call these figures into question, as conducting 100 transplants each year would require no more than 10 beds.

The cost for a kidney transplant at this centre is about 100,000 RMB. Its gross revenue in 2005 reached 250 million RMB. In August 2006, the centre recorded over 100 patients waiting for transplants at any given time. On August 15 alone, the centre conducted 11 kidney transplants.453

The centre has consistently hosted annual kidney transplantation conferences in Shanxi Province. In October 2010, it hosted the 2010 National Organ Transplantation Academic Conference. It also hosted the 2012 Chinese Medical Association’s Urologic Surgery Subconference and National Kidney Transplantation Academic Conference.

31
Third People’s Hospital of Datong City
National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital is affiliated with Shanxi Medical University. It was established in 1958 and has 1,000 beds. It claimed to be first-class in Shanxi Province and number one in northern Shanxi. It has 192 staff with senior professional titles, 403 with intermediate titles, and 99 with PhD or master’s degrees.454

The hospital includes the Datong City Organ Transplant centre. Since 1991, the hospital has carried out bone marrow, kidney, and other types of transplants. Its transplant team is filled with well-known experts and professionals, and the program has reached an advanced level domestically. The hospital began conducting liver transplants in 2004. In September 2003, the hospital hosted the Shanxi Provincial Organ Transplantation Conference.455 456

Li Haichao is the hospital’s vice president, one of the founders of its urologic surgery department, a member of the Chinese Medical Association Urologic Surgery Subcommittee’s Kidney Transplantation Group, and vice chairman of the Shanxi Medical Association’s Organ Transplant Committee. Li Rongjun, chief surgeon of the department, began conducting kidney transplants in 1999.457 Wei Xiuju, the department’s associate chief surgeon, began performing allogenic kidney transplants in 1998.458

After widespread reports of organ harvesting crimes in 2006 and after this hospital was reported in overseas media, it deleted almost all information about its transplantation activities online. The hospital’s introduction indicates that it has begun to conduct liver transplants, but no further information is available. 459

However, the Fifth People’s Hospital of Datong City, which was not approved by the Ministry of Health in 2007 to conduct transplants, was carrying out liver transplants openly. Its website stated, “Based on the foundation of our development of multiple kidney transplants in recent years, the hospital demonstrated the city’s first liver transplant to reach an internationally advanced standard in October 2004.”

46
Huashan Hospital of Fudan University

Established in 1907, this institution was formerly the Chinese Red Cross General Hospital and has a high reputation domestically and internationally.460

The Fudan University Organ Transplantation Research Institute was established at the hospital in February 2002. Its director is academician Zhen Shusen, with academician Qiu Fazu as a consultant. Its main research direction is clinical and basic research in large organ transplantation.461

The institute has achieved many “firsts” in China’s transplantation field and provides effective support for the hospital’s basic and clinical research in kidney transplantation. It operates under the general surgery department, and its specializations include liver transplantation.

Ding Qiang, president of Huashan Hospital and deputy director of the Organ Transplantation Research Institute of Fudan University, specializes in kidney transplantation.462

Its urologic surgery department’s professional transplant team focuses on kidney transplantation and organ preservation as two of its development goals.463

The team, led by Qu Lianxi, has one chief physician/professor and one associate chief physician. Its kidney transplantation research projects received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation and the Shanghai Science Committee Key Projects fund. Its “kidney allograft” project received second prize in the National Science and Technology Achievement Award. Its research results have been published in over 60 papers in domestic core journals and SCI journals abroad.464

The hepatobiliary surgery department includes 5 professors (chief physicians), 3 associate professors (associate chief physicians), and 67 open beds. Wang Zhengxin, director of its liver transplant centre, specializes in complicated liver transplants, transplants involving liver cancer, postoperative management, and living-donor transplantation. He has completed nearly 800 liver transplants.465

48
Rui Jin Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine

National level liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This large-scale general teaching hospital has a century of history.466 It has 1,800 beds and 593 professors, associate professors, or professionals with senior titles. It hosts 14 second-level doctorate research stations, 24 master’s research stations, 112 doctoral advisors, and 169 master’s advisors. It was the first in China to perform heart and liver transplants in the 1970s.467 It ranked sixth among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015.468

Rui Jin Hospital was the first in China to perform clinical liver transplants in 1977. Its Organ Transplant Centre has conducted large quantities of liver, kidney, combined liver-kidney, pancreas-kidney, and other challenging multi-organ transplants.469

The centre’s director, Peng Chenghong, has conducted in-depth research in liver transplantation. In July 2001, Peng conducted China’s first split liver transplant (SLT).470 The surgery was listed in the year’s top ten news in Chinese Medicine.

In 2004, it became the first in Shanghai to perform combined small intestine and liver transplants. In December 2004, it carried out the first combined seven-organ transplant in Asia and set many records in China.471 It was again listed in the year’s top ten news in Chinese Medicine.

The Rui Jin Organ Transplant Centre was established in February 2003, and it has a large group of top transplant experts. Hospital president Li Hongwei was named leader of the academic discipline and formed a comprehensive, capable transplant team with nationally known expert Peng Chenghong, Yin Lu, Xu Da, Wang Xianghui, and others. By 2007, the centre had 57 beds, including 14 ICU beds.472

The centre has 22 surgeons, including 16 chief and associate chief surgeons, 4 PhD advisors, and 5 master’s advisors. Each year, the department sends personnel to study in France, the United States, Germany, Japan, and other countries and bring the latest knowledge and techniques back to China.

The transplant centre cooperates closely with the Henri Bismuth Hepatobiliary Institute in France, the Beaujon Hospital Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Department in France, and the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute in the United States. Its transplantation pathology laboratory is equipped with a remote consultation system connected to the Starzl Institute, enhancing the diagnosis of difficult cases.473

51
Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiao tong University

National level lung transplant centre

The hospital claims to be the earliest and largest chest hospital in China. It boasts the largest number of lung transplants in Shanghai and a leader in China.474 It employs over 130 chief and associate chief physicians, and 46 doctoral and master’s advisors. Over 30 of its experts receive special allowances from the State Council.475

Professor Gao Chengxin studied under the renowned Dr. Joel D. Cooper in 1985. He was the first Chinese doctor to study lung transplantation.

The lung transplant team was established in the early 1990s. Professor Gao Chengxin, Dr. Hu Dingzhong, Dr. Shi Jianxin, and two other doctors studied at Washington Hospital in the United States to master advanced lung transplant techniques. They then formulated and standardized Chinese operations based on situations in China.476

It started clinical lung transplants in 2002 and performed the first lobar lung transplant in China. It has performed the most bilateral lung transplants in China to date and assisted many hospitals in China with lung transplantation.477

The hospital’s archived web pages state its process for lung transplants:478

“If a lung transplantation suits your conditions, we will arrange necessary examinations. You will obtain the results in one or two days. A dedicated member from the lung transplant team will accompany seriously ill patients during the exam. We will then evaluate your situation: lung transplantation as soon as possible, or no transplantation at this point.”

“Once you are on the wait list, we will start preparation. The centre will customize a plan for you according to your situation. We will determine the recipients based on blood type, severity of symptoms, wait time, and donor organ size and notify recipients as soon as possible. Patients have a special passage to be admitted in the shortest time and complete paperwork for hospitalization.”

“The patient will arrive in the operating room two or three hours prior to the surgery and be transferred to the ICU afterwards. He/she will be transferred to a regular ward after his/her conditions have stabilized. The patient can leave the hospital in usually two to three weeks, barring any complications.”

The hospital announced the total expense to be between 200,000 and 300,000 RMB.

Incidentally, Dr. Han Baohui, director of pulmonary medicine at Shanghai Chest Hospital, reported her classmate Zhao Bin to the police for practicing Falun Gong. As a result, Mr. Zhao was arrested on April 27, 2012 and subsequently tortured to death at the Tilanqiao Prison in Shanghai on October 19, 2013.[vi]

50
Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

National level liver transplant centre

The hospital ranks 25th among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China, according to the 2015 China Hospital Blue Book Competitiveness Report released jointly by the Hong Kong Eric Peter Hospital Management Research Centre and the Documentation Publishing House of Chinese Academy of Social Science in March 2016.480

The General Surgery Department has 240 beds and performs about 7,000 operations annually. It is staffed with 47 doctors, 3 doctoral advisors, 11 master’s advisors, 6 professors, 34 associate professors, 11 full-time doctoral students, and 15 full-time master’s students.481

Its liver surgery department has a postdoctoral fellow research centre and hosts doctoral and master’s programs. Xinhua Hospital is also one of the first liver transplant hospitals licensed by the Ministry of Health.

It was one of the first to carry out orthotopic, piggyback, and pro-donor liver transplantations. Its official website boasts its “routine operations” of living-donor liver transplants for both adults and children and that the hospital “has identified liver transplant experiences suitable for China’s conditions.”482

The hospital hosted the “Oriental Technology Forum – Liver Transplantation,” organized by the city of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Science, and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. It received national-level funding and funding from key research projects of Shanghai.

Dr. Quan Zhiwei, associate dean of the hospital, is a member of the Organ Transplant Committee of the Shanghai Branch of the Chinese Medical Association and an editorial member of the Chinese edition of Annals of Surgery. He has published over 40 papers in Chinese and international journals and holds several patents.

Director Chen Litian conducted over 500 liver transplants at the Oriental Organ Transplantation Centre after obtaining his PhD in 2003. He established the Liver Transplant Department at Xinhua Hospital in 2011.483 He was also involved in writing and compiling Liver Transplants in China, Liver Transplantation Manual, and A Mapping Guide to Organ Transplant Surgery, and other publications.484

Dr. Du Zhiyong received his PhD in 2008, and began post-doctorate study at Rui Jin Hospital under Professor Peng Chenghong, a domestically-renowned expert liver transplants. He joined Xinhua Hospital in July 2011, and has performed a large number of liver transplant, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic surgeries.485

The current pages of the Xinhua Hospital Liver Transplant Centre no longer contain the information regarding the number of beds and personnel.

The hospital has about 3,000 employees, 46% of whom hold senior and associate senior professional titles. It has 42 doctoral advisors, 181 master’s advisors, a clinical postdoctoral fellow research centre, 8 doctoral programs, and 25 master’s programs.486

56
Jiangsu Province Hospital

National level liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital is a key liver transplantation centre for the Ministry of Health. Its Liver Surgery Institute includes two wards with more than 110 beds. Its medical team has 62 staff, including 9 professors or those with senior professional titles, and 12 with associate senior titles. Over 90% of its doctors hold doctoral degrees. It has six surgical teams and four operating rooms, which are available for simultaneous liver transplant operations.487

In the span of three to four years, its Liver Surgery Department grew from nonexistence into one of the five largest liver transplant research centre in the country.488

Wang Xuehao, head of the Liver Surgery Institute and the Jiangsu Province Liver Transplantation Centre,489 is an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, a doctoral advisor, a well-known Chinese organ transplant and hepatobiliary surgeon, and a pioneer of living-donor liver transplantation in China. He pursued further study at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre’s World Liver Transplant Centre between September 1983 and October 1985.490 In January 1995, he conducted the first successful living-donor liver transplant in China. At present, he is the director of the key liver transplantation laboratory of the Ministry of Health, and the director of the Academic Committee.491

Li Xiangcheng is the deputy director of the Liver Transplantation Centre and a PhD advisor. He engages in liver surgery and clinical liver transplants and research. In 2001, he studied as a visiting scholar at the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute and accumulated a large amount of experience in perioperative care in liver transplantation.492

The eight members of the liver transplantation research innovation team are Sun Beicheng, Li Guoqiang, Cheng Feng, Lu Ling, Yu Yue, Chen Yun, Yao Aihua, and Gao Yun. All of its members hold at least PhD degrees, and half have studied abroad.493

The Urologic Surgery Department performed the first allogenic kidney transplant in the province in 1977. It established a Kidney Transplant Centre in 1998. Its combined pancreas-kidney and liver-kidney transplantation have won second prize of the provincial science and technology award.494 Its kidney and multi-organ transplantation are at an advanced level domestically.495

The Ophthalmology department of the Institute is also the Jiangsu Province Eye Bank.

59
Wuxi People’s Hospital

National level lung transplant centre

As of December 2014, this nationally renowned 3A hospital had 5 postdoctoral fellows, 95 PhDs, 433 personnel with master’s degrees, and 419 with senior professional titles. Currently, it has 1,903 beds.496

Its lung transplant centre claims to be among the top three in the world,497 and claims to have completed more than half of all lung transplant surgeries in the country.498 It is a key clinical discipline and serves as the lung transplant treatment centre in Jiangsu Province. It is a nationally registered lung transplant data management unit and owns a key provincial laboratory for transplantation. Its lung transplant team consists of three chief surgeons, two associate chief surgeons, one doctoral advisor, three master’s advisors, and many staff members holding doctoral or master’s degrees.

In September 2002, Chen Jingyu returned to the hospital’s lung transplant centre in the thoracic surgery department after finishing advanced study at the lung transplant centre of Toronto General Hospital. His team performed the country’s first lung transplantation for the treatment of emphysema and has since performed single-lung, double-lung, and heart-lung transplants. It claims to have performed the most lung transplants nationwide as of December 2007 and has set nine records in Asia and China.499 Chen is thus renowned as the “No. 1 Lung Transplant Surgeon in China.”

As reported in July 2014, Chen Jingyu’s team often completed four or five lung transplants a day. He led his team to spread its advanced techniques to thirty 3A hospitals in more than ten cities and provinces, including Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Jilin.500 A new era of lung transplantation in China has begun. Chen’s team has filled in many gaps in this area.501

Chen also developed pulmonary perfusion preservation solutions, which prolong lung retention time from four to six hours to nearly eight hours, reaching an internationally advanced level and taking the lead in China. In the past five years, this centre has won many medical, science, and technology awards. It has published more than 50 papers on lung transplantation in core national journals, including in SCI, and translated the monograph Lung Transplantation.

On August 13th, 2015, Chen remarked on his Sina Weibo, “Originally I thought the number of available donor lungs would decrease, since the practice of using death row prisoners as donors has been abolished. However, who would have thought that we are even busier than last year. Now we perform one lung transplant every three days.”

Chen’s lung transplant centre was destined to become even busier, as indicated by his Weibo message at the end of October: “Good morning! Our team started to work at 5:00 am. We again use an airplane to deliver the donor lung. In October, we have been continuously conducting lung transplants from the 1st to the end, and have set a new record in the number of transplants done in a single month…”

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The First People’s Hospital of Changzhou

(The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University)

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was established in 1918. It currently has 202 professors/chief physicians and 409 associate professors/associate chief physicians. It has 14 specialists receiving special government allowances from the State Council and many experts with outstanding contributions.502

Although the hospital is approved for only kidney transplants by the Ministry of Health, before 2008 it had already completed transplants of heart, lung, liver, combined pancreas-kidney, and other “firsts” in Changzhou.503

Its urologic surgery department’s website states that it began performing kidney transplants in the 1980s, and that its strength traditionally has been in kidney transplantation. Its cumulative transplant volume is near the top nationwide.504 More than half of its patients come from Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, and other Asian-Pacific regions.505

The department’s web page does not contain any information about its bed count or number of medical personnel. Early articles published by its director and hospital president He Xiaozhou, a well-known kidney transplant expert, state that the hospital had completed 1,080 kidney transplants as of 2001; in early 2008, it had reportedly performed more than 1,470 kidney transplants.506 In other words, in the six years after 2001, it performed only 390 kidney transplants, or an average of less than 70 per year. This contrasts sharply with the 2001 figure and is difficult to believe.

The hospital’s website currently shows that it has completed 1,600 transplants (an average of 30 per year), yet claims that its cumulative transplant volume is among the highest in the country.507 Hospital president He Xiaozhou’s web page claims that he had personally led the department in conducting more than 1,700 kidney transplants.508 These numbers are contradictory, and the official totals and annual rates are much too low to be in a leading position in China.

The hepatobiliary surgery department completed Changzhou’s first orthotopic human liver transplant. The department is one of the biggest hepatobiliary treatment centres in southern Jiangsu Province. It has 22 physicians, including 2 professors, 2 associate professors, 4 master’s advisors, and 72 beds.509

The department’s chief physician Zhu Feng once studied under academician Li Jieshou. In 2005, he took over liver transplantation at Zhejiang University, under the guidance of academician Zheng Shusen. He has a PhD degree from overseas, studied in Italy, and has rich experience in liver transplantation. His main research projects include “Application of basic immunology research in chronic dysfunction of transplanted organs” under the National 973 Program. He has published more than 20 academic papers.510

The cardiothoracic surgery department is led by Zhang Xiaoying, a PhD advisor and specialist who receives special government allowances from the State Council. In 2001, it completed Changzhou’s first heart transplant and first lung transplant. 511 512 The department has 72 beds, one PhD advisor, 10 PhD students, and 4 master’s degree holders. It has established a cooperative relationship with Lund University in Sweden.

Its ophthalmology department also conducts cornea transplants on a routine basis and has reached an advanced level in Jiangsu Province.513

62
The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was founded in 1883. For five years in a row, it ranked among the top 50 hospitals in China. It has almost 3,000 beds and 706 senior chief and deputy specialists. The hospital includes multiple provincial and ministerial-level key disciplines and key disciplines in clinical medicine. It has 42 master’s, doctoral and postdoctoral research stations.514

The hospital carried out the first kidney transplant in Jiangsu Province in 1978. The Urologic Surgery Department has a kidney transplant centre with 55 beds, 130 monthly admissions/discharges, and a 101% turnover rate.515 Professor Hou Jianquan, its PhD advisor, claimed that the hospital’s kidney transplant capabilities are leading domestically. By 2012, it had performed over 1,170 renal transplants (the claim of less than 100 cases per year seems clearly understated, because that would require no more than 10 beds).516

The department is a key clinical specialist centre of Suzhou City and Jiangsu Province and offers master’s and PhD degree programs. It currently has two doctoral advisors and 5 master’s advisors. It has established academic exchange and collaborative relationships with countries including the United States, Britain, Japan and Switzerland. The department has received 1.45 million RMB in research funding and 14 ministerial and provincial awards. It has published 14 monographs and 74 academic papers.

Its director Yan Chunyin has studied at the University of Manchester and the University of Zurich. He is a PhD advisor and vice chairman of the Organ Transplantation Professional Association of the Jiangsu Branch of the Chinese Medical Association. He conducted in-depth research in areas including kidney transplantation. He received the Suzhou Municipal Science and Technology Award for his experimental and clinical studies of “long-term survival and induction of the formation of immune tolerance in kidney transplantation.” He is currently involved in a number of provincial and ministerial-level research projects.517

The Heart and Great Vessels Surgical Department was the first one to begin to conduct orthotropic heart transplants in 2000 in Jianshu Province. This department is a provincial key discipline of medical science and a national key discipline for clinical medicine.518

Shen Zhenya, the director of the Cardiovascular Surgery Department, in May 2014 said, “We have [organ transplants] every month. Once you come, I think you should be able to find an organ donor in a little over two weeks. The donors who practice Falun Gong…we have too.” 519

64
Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital

National level heart transplant centre

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